Andrew Clarke



Andrew Clarke (Sir) (b. 27 July 1824, Southsea, Hampshire, Englandd. 29 March 1902, London, England) was the second governor of the Straits Settlements,1 serving from 4 November 1873 to 7 May 1875.2 He is known for signing the Pangkor Treaty in 1874, which gave the British indirect rule over the Malay States.3 With the support of Chinese and European merchants, Clarke also successfully enforced a check on the abuse of coolies that same year.4 Clarke Quay in Singapore was named after him.5

Early life
Clarke was the eldest of four sons born to Andrew Clarke, governor of Western Australia from 1845 to 1847, and his wife Frances.6


Educated at King’s School in Canterbury, England, and Portora School in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, Clarke entered the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, when he was 16 years old. After completing the four-year course, he became a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers in June 1844.7

Career
Clarke began his career in Western Australia under his father’s supervision, but was soon transferred to serve as secretary to William Denison, governor of the British colonies of Tasmania and New South Wales. In 1853, he was appointed surveyor-general of Victoria, Australia.8


Clarke is remembered as one of the most capable and experienced public servants in the British colonial government, having served in several capacities in various parts of the world, including the Gold Coast (now Ghana), Australia, New Zealand, Egypt and India. Throughout his life, he maintained great friendship with King Chulalongkorn of Siam, whom he had met when he was sent to Siam to settle a political dispute.9

Key contributions as governor of the Straits Settlements
Pangkor Treaty
In November 1873, Clarke was sent to Singapore as governor of the Straits Settlements to study the prospects of appointing British advisers for the Malay States and find ways to restore peace and order. During his 18 months in office, Clarke played an instrumental in reversing the British policy of non-interference in the Malay States.10

When Sultan Abdullah of Perak approached Clarke to settle succession disputes, Clarke took the opportunity to gather all concerned parties, including the disputing Chinese factions, to agree to a treaty that became known as the Pangkor Treaty. The accord, which took effect on 20 January 1874, led to the appointment of a British Resident in Perak. This was a significant event in the history of Malaya, as it altered the relationship between the British and the Malay States thereafter. It was also an effective way to bring the Malay States under British rule.11 The same formula was used to effect similar arrangements with other Malay states subsequently. Within a year, Clarke had placed British advisers in Perak, Selangor and Sungei Ujong.12

Protection of the Chinese and coolies
Clarke increased the powers of William A. Pickering, Chinese interpreter to the Straits Settlement government, and changed Pickering’s title to Protector of the Chinese so as to facilitate his work with the Chinese secret societies. Clarke also ordered an inquiry into the abuse of coolies in Province Wellesley.13

In 1874, Clarke enforced checks on the abuse of coolies with stricter government supervision and regulation of coolie labour.14

Departure from the Straits Settlements
In 1875, Clarke left his position as governor of the Straits Settlements for a new appointment as a member of the Council of the Viceroy in India. He was succeeded by William Francis Drummond Jervois.15


Bust
In 1887, Edward Onslow Ford sculpted a bust of Clarke in aluminium bronze. It was displayed at the Centennial International Exhibition in Melbourne from 1888 to 1889. The bust was then placed at the Singapore Club, followed by the Chamber of Commerce in 1928. After World War II, it was moved to the Victoria Memorial Hall.16


Family17
Father: Andrew Clarke

Mother: Frances Jackson née Lardner
Wife: Mary Margaret Mackillop
Daughter: Elinor Mary de Winton Clarke



Author
Sitragandi Arunasalam



References
1. Vetch, R. H. (1878). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the time in Australia. Retrieved 2016, December 28 from Project Gutenberg Australia website: http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks15/1500721h/0-dict-biogCl-Cu.html; Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
2. Chanderbali, D. (2008). Indian Indenture in the Straits Settlements, 1872–1910. Leeds, England: Peepal Tree, p. 207. (Call no.: RSING 331.625405951 CHA)
3. Ooi, K. G. (2010). The A to Z of Malaysia. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, p. 62. (Call no.: RSEA 959.5003 OOI)
4. Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
5. Savage, V. R., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). Singapore street names: A study of toponymics. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 83–84. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA])
6. Vetch, R. H. (1878). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the time in Australia. Retrieved 2016, December 28 from Project Gutenberg Australia website: http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks15/1500721h/0-dict-biogCl-Cu.html
7. Vetch, R. H. (1878). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the time in Australia. Retrieved 2016, December 28 from Project Gutenberg Australia website: http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks15/1500721h/0-dict-biogCl-Cu.html
8. Xie, S. (1988). Siam and the British, 1874–75: Sir Andrew Clarke and the front palace crisis. Bangkok, Thailand: Thammasat University Press, p. 34. (Call no.: RSEA 959.3035 XIE)
9. Xie, S. (1988). Siam and the British, 1874–75: Sir Andrew Clarke and the front palace crisis. Bangkok, Thailand: Thammasat University Press, p. 34. (Call no.: RSEA 959.3035 XIE); Vetch, R. H. (1878). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the time in Australia. Retrieved 2016, December 28 from Project Gutenberg Australia website: http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks15/1500721h/0-dict-biogCl-Cu.html
10. Knowles, M. I. (1935). The expansion of British influence in the Malay Peninsula, 1867–1885: A study in nineteenth century imperialist. Madison: University of Wisconsin, pp. 75, 79, 82. (Call no.: RSING q959.51033 KNO)
11. Makepeace, W., Brooke, G. E., & Braddell, R. St. J. (Eds.). (1991). One hundred years of Singapore (Vol. 1). Singapore: Oxford University Press, pp. 27–28, 97–102. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 ONE-[HIS]); Dunlop, P. K. G. (2000). Street names of Singapore. Singapore: Who’s Who Pub., p. 55. (Call no.: RSING 959.5 DUN-[HIS])
12. Knowles, M. I. (1935). The expansion of British influence in the Malay Peninsula, 1867–1885: A study in nineteenth century imperialist. Madison: University of Wisconsin, pp. 89–90, 99, 103. (Call no.: RSING q959.51033 KNO)
13. Vetch, R. H. (Ed.). (1905). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke [Microfilm no.: NL 5094]. London: John Murray, pp. 125–126.
14. Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
15. Makepeace, W., Brooke, G. E., & Braddell, R. St. J. (Eds.). (1991). One hundred years of Singapore (Vol. 1). Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 102. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 ONE-[HIS])
16. Ramachandra, S. (1961). Singapore landmarks, past and present. Singapore: Published for D. Moore for Eastern Universities Press, pp. 47–48. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 RAM)
17. Vetch, R. H. (Ed.). (1905). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke [Microfilm no.: NL 5094]. London: John Murray, pp. 94, 321; Vetch, R. H. (1878). Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the time in Australia. Retrieved 2016, December 28 from Project Gutenberg Australia website: http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks15/1500721h/0-dict-biogCl-Cu.html



The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Governors--Singapore--Biography
Colonial administrators
Colonial administrators--Singapore--Biography
History>>Asia>>Southeast Asia>>Singapore
Clarke, Andrew, Sir, 1824-1902
History>>Asia>>Southeast Asia>>Malaysia
Personalities>>Biographies>>Colonial Administrators