Outram



Outram is a planning area in Singapore’s Central Region.1 It is bounded by Havelock Road and Pickering Street to the north, Telok Ayer Street, Peck Seah Street and Stanley Street to the east, Gopeng and Kee Seng streets to the south, and Cantonment Road and Outram Road to the west. Covering a total area of approximately 136.2 ha, Outram comprises four subzones: Pearl’s Hill, People’s Park, China Square and Chinatown. The area is home to many places of worship, five of which are gazetted national monuments including Sri Mariamman Temple, Thian Hock Keng and Al-Abrar Mosque.2

History
Outram Road stretches from Havelock Road to New Bridge Road. Once known as Cantonment Road, it referred to the area that Stamford Raffles had instructed William Farquhar to set aside for the living quarters of troops.3


The resolution of the municipal council in 1858 renamed three roads after the heroes of the 1857 Indian Mutiny – Neil Road, Havelock Road and Outram Road.4 Outram Road was named after James Outram.5

Key features
There are two hills in the area: York Hill and Pearl’s Hill.6

Primarily a public housing estate developed by the Housing and Development Board, within York Hill is the access road to Outram Secondary School.7

The Police Operational Headquarters was formerly located at Pearl’s Hill Terrace, which housed the Operations Command, Radio Division, Criminal Investigation Department, public affairs team and the police national service headquarters.8

Pearl’s Hill had many early institutional buildings, such as the Seamen’s Hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, and one of Singapore's earliest prisons – Pearl’s Hill Prison (also known as Outram Road Gaol).9 The prison complex was demolished in the 1960s and replaced by Outram Park Complex, a public housing and shopping project.10 Opened in 1970 by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, it was one of the largest public housing projects undertaken by the Urban Redevelopment Authority in its second five-year Home Building Programme, which started in 1966.11 Adjoining this is the 38-storey Pearl Bank Apartments.12

From 1965 to 1972, the Ministry of Interior and Defence (today’s Ministry of Defence) was located at Pearl’s Hill.13 Another landmark in the estate was Outram Secondary School, which was demolished in late 1968.14 The hilltop service reservoir, built in 1898 and completed in 1904, provides fresh water supply to Chinatown.15

Variant names
Si-pai po in Hokkien and Cantonese, which refers to “sepoy plain” or “sepoy’s field”. Sepoy Lines, the Outram Police Station and parade ground, used to be at one end of Outram Road. Outram is still known by this name amongst the Chinese.
Si-kha teng in Hokkien, which means “four-footed pavilion”. There was a pavilion in the cemetery adjoining Outram Road which was known by this name.16
Si-pai po ma-ta chhu in Hokkien and si-pai-lin ma-ta liu in Cantonese, which means “Sepoy Plain or Sepoy Lines police house”.17



Author

Vernon Cornelius-Takahama



References
1. Tyers, R. K. (1993). Ray Tyers’ Singapore: Then & now. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 184. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TYE-[HIS]); Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, p. 4. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
2. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, pp. 4, 20. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
3. Savage, V. R., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). Singapore street names: A study of toponymics. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 63, 287. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA])
4. Hack, K. (n.d.). Chinatown as a microcosm of Singapore, [n.p.]. Retrieved 2017, May 11 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/blackburn/ChinatownHistory.pdf; Tyers, R. K. (1993). Ray Tyers’ Singapore: Then & now. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 184. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TYE-[HIS])
5. Dunlop, P. K. G. (2000). Street names of Singapore. Singapore: Who’s Who Pub., p. 232. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DUN-[HIS])
6. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, p. 8. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
7. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, pp. 8, 20. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
8. Ramachandra, S. (1961). Singapore landmarks, past and present. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 15. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 RAM); Tee, H. C. (2003, June 29). A hidden emerald. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Hack, K. (n.d.). Chinatown as a microcosm of Singapore, [n.p.]. Retrieved 2017, May 11 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/blackburn/ChinatownHistory.pdf; Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
10. Hack, K. (n.d.). Chinatown as a microcosm of Singapore, [n.p.]. Retrieved 2017, May 11 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/blackburn/ChinatownHistory.pdf; New homes for 12,500 at the old jail for 760. (1970, May 12). The Straits Times. p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Tyers, R. K. (1993). Ray Tyers’ Singapore: Then & now. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 184. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TYE-[HIS])
12. Low, C. (2006, September 2). The puzzle on Pearl’s Hill.  The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Government of Singapore. (2003, November). 1965 – The Ministry of Interior and Defence. Retrieved 2017, May 11 from MINDEF website: https://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/overview/birth_of_saf/v07n11_history.html; Ramachandra, S. (1961). Singapore landmarks, past and present. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 13. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 RAM)
14. Outram Secondary. (2016). History. Retrieved 2017, May 11 from Outram Secondary School website: http://outramsec.moe.edu.sg/about-us/history; Ramachandra, S. (1961). Singapore landmarks, past and present. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 15. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 RAM)
15. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1995). Outram planning area: Planning report 1995. Singapore: The Authority, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
16. Firmstone, H. W. (1905, February). Chinese names of streets and places in Singapore and the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42, pp. 119, 144, 163. (Call no.: RQUIK 959. 5 JMBRAS)
17. Haughton, H. T. (1969). Native names of streets in Singapore. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42(1)(215), 196–207, p. 203. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/



The information in this article is valid as at 2000 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. 

Subject
Street names--Singapore
Suburbs--Singapore
Arts>>Architecture>>Public and commercial buildings
Streets and Places
Architecture and Landscape>>Streets and Places