Shaw Organisation



Shaw Organisation is best known as a major player in the Asian film industry since the 1920s,1 being involved in the production, distribution and exhibition of films. With studios in Shanghai, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong,2 Shaw was a pioneer and revolutionary presence in film industries in those countries. In later years, the organisation moved into property, which is now a major part of its business in Singapore.

Early history
Tian Yi Film Company (also known as Unique Film Productions) was founded in Shanghai in 1925 by Runje Shaw, the eldest of four brothers from the Shaw family.3 Sons of a textile merchant who had made his wealth dealing in pigments,4 the Shaw brothers – Runje, Runde, Runme and Run Run – produced two films in 1925 and they made more than 10 in 1929. They continued this fast-track production into the mid-’30s before it was disrupted by the Sino-Japanese War.5 From its Shanghai studio, Tian Yi made silent films such as Li Di Cheng Fo (New Leaf, 1925), Nu Xia Li Fei Fei (Heroine Li Fei Fei, 1925) and Liang Zhu Tong Shi (The Love Eternal, 1926).6 The small domestic market, acute competition among Shanghai film producers and a limited supply of native theatres in Shanghai in the ’20s forced the brothers to look to overseas markets, particularly Southeast Asia, to expand their business.7


Cinema chain and amusement parks
Runme, the third brother and the studio’s distribution manager, arrived in Singapore by 1926 and was joined two years later by his younger brother Run Run.8 In 1927, the Shaw brothers set up a joint venture called Tianyi Qingnian (Unique Youth) with Singaporean film distributor Chen Bilin to produce classical films for the domestic and Southeast Asian markets. The partnership ended in 1928 after the brothers began to gain direct control of the distribution in the region.9 In Singapore, however, the Shanghainese Shaws initially struggled to penetrate the market because exhibitors, largely from the Hokkien, Teochew and Cantonese dialect groups, preferred to import films directly from China. Cut out by the existing operators, the Shaws rented the Empire, an old cinema in Tanjong Pagar that only showed western pictures.10 The Empire showed their Chinese films at a steep monthly rent of $2,000. The films were screened from late 1927 in two nightly shows with tickets priced at 50 and 75 cents.11

Runme also sought more exhibition channels in Malaya and worked with a number of exhibitors there. These include Ho Ah Loke in Penang and Ipoh,12 who by 1934 had sold his cinema circuit in northern Malaya to the brothers.13 Testing the market by running temporary cinemas in small Malayan towns, the brothers purchased land and set up permanent cinemas wherever their screenings proved popular.14

By 1930, Runme and Run Run had their foot firmly planted in Malaya, carrying on their film business under two entities: Hai Hsin Film Co. (liquidated in February 1941)15 and Shaw Brothers. Formed in 1928,16 Shaw Brothers celebrated its anniversaries by halving the price of tickets to their cinemas and amusement parks.17 Hai Hsin Film Co and Shaw Brothers debuted in the Directory of Malaya in 1933, with both having 116 Robinson Road as their office premises.18

In 1938, Shaw Brothers set up Malayan Theatres (Pte) Ltd19 as its exhibition arm to manage their cinemas in Southeast Asia, 60 of which were in Malaya. In Singapore, Shaw took over the Alhambra cinema in 1938 and gave it a thorough makeover that included air-conditioning, the first for a cinema in Singapore. The Shaw also signed deals with American companies Twentieth Century Fox and Warner Brothers to show western film in the new Alhambra.20

The Marlborough was another Shaw flagship cinema in Singapore. Situated next to the Alhambra, it was very popular with the Indian community before the war because Shaw had maintained for some period a policy of showing Indian films.21 The Shaw Brothers’ stable of films was not only recruited from its studio in Shanghai (and Hong Kong as well, from 193422), but also from all Chinese production companies. This ensured a ready supply of popular movies for its exhibition and distribution channels in Malaya.23 The Shaw studio in Shanghai experimented with sound in 1930,24 releasing its first talkie, Romance of the Opera, in October 1931. The film was also screened in Singapore.25 The success of Shaw’s first Cantonese talkie, Pei Chin Lung (White Gold/Platinum Dragon) in 193326 inspired Shaw studio to generate more Cantonese talkies to feed Shaw’s cinema expansion in Malaya.27 By 1937, Shaw Brothers had become the sole distributor of Chinese talkies in Malaya.28

Another highly profitable venture of the Shaw Brothers was its string of amusement parks. Shaw moved into this business in 1935 with the purchase of amusement parks in Ipoh and Alor Star.29 In 1938, they added New World at Jalan Besar through a joint venture with Ong Peng Hock.30 They also leased and later bought Great World at Kim Seng.31 Great World closed in 196432 and was sold in 1979,33 while New World was sold in April 1987.34

Japanese Occupation and postwar growth
When the Japanese troops invaded Singapore in 1942, the Shaw brothers attempted to flee Singapore but the Japanese caught up with them and employed Runme to show their films.35 During the Japanese Occupation (1942–45), all film distribution and theatres were controlled by Eiga Haikyusha (Japan Film Distribution Company)36 and the Japanese used Shaw cinemas to screen their propaganda films.37


After the war, Shaw Brothers resumed control of their cinemas and parks, and not only revived but also expanded their entertainment ring. American and British films were in great demand, and the military population during the period of British Military Administration contributed to packed cinema halls, generating up to five times more revenue for Shaw.38 With the gold, jewellery and cash they had hidden away before the war, the Shaws financed upgrades and expansions of their cinema chain.39 In 1946, they purchased the iconic Capitol Theatre for $3 million, which thereafter became Shaw’s flagship cinema.40 In 1946, Shaw opened Rex, a new cinema located at the junction of Bukit Timah and Selegie roads,41 followed by Lido on Orchard Road in 1959.42

By 1965, Shaw owned 19 cinemas in Singapore, 70 in Malaysia and another 41 cinemas elsewhere in Southeast Asia. They also contracted another 220 independent halls in Singapore and Malaysia to show Shaw-distributed films. Hollywood studios like Universal, Warner Bros and United Artists were exhibited exclusively at Shaw cinemas.43

Shaw set up an acquisition department that brought in movies from the United States, England, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, the Philippines and Mexico. A printing press was also started to publish entertainment magazines like Yue Lok Poh, Southern Screen (with a monthly circulation of 100,000 by the mid-’60s), Movie News, Majallah Filem and Indian Movie News.44

Film production
In May 1935, Runje visited Malaya and was hosted by the sultan of Johor. Runje’s tour of the country was motivated by the possibilities of setting up a branch studio in Malaya. He had just partially relocated his filming activities to Hong Kong, and was encouraged by the success of Tianyi’s first Cantonese talkie in Singapore and Malaya that he had to see for himself the strong reception of his films.45 The potential of Singapore and Malaya as a market for talkies did not strike the Shaw brothers alone. Two years earlier, Indian millionaire filmmaker, S. M. Chisty, was sold to the idea of “exploiting Malaya on the screen”.46 This led to the founding of a studio in Pasir Panjang that filmed the first Malay talkie in Malaya, Leila Majnun. The film premiered in March 1934 at the Marlborough,47 a year before Runje’s visit.48


In 1937, recognising Malaya as an excellent location for movie production, Runme and Run Run made initial plans to build a studio in Perak. Choosing to shoot a Malay talkie based on the fable, Jula Juli Bintang Tiga, the brothers arranged for sound equipment from Hong Kong and directors from China.49 However, no further report on the filming could be found. News of a Shaw studio in Malaya appeared again three years later. In April 1940, they started building a film studio off Moulmein Road in Singapore, while their technical crew from Hong Kong were already in Singapore to shoot Shaw’s first Malay talkie.50 Entitled Mutiara (Pearl), it premiered at the Alhambra in July 1940.51 The Singapore studio also produced several more Malay talkies before the war: Bermadu (Polygamy, 1940),52 Topeng Saitan (Devil’s Mask, 1941),53 Hanchor Hati (Broken-hearted, 1941),54 Ibu Tiri (Stepmother, 1941)55 and Terang Bulan Di Malaya (Full Moon over Malaya, 1941).56 These prewar films were co-written and co-directed by Wan Hoi-ling and Hou Yao.57

Studio era
After the war in 1947, Shaw Brothers reopened its studio on Jalan Ampas in Singapore, whose construction had begun before the war.58 Shaw released its first postwar Malay film in 1947 under a new company, Malay Film Productions (MFP), which was formally incorporated in August 1949. Entitled Singapura Di Waktu Malam (Singapore by Night), the production was directed by veteran Indian director Balden Singh Rajhans, commonly known as B. S. Rajhans.59 In a signal that the Shaw brothers were committed to filmmaking in Singapore, they equipped their Jalan Ampas studio with the latest sound recording equipment and motion picture cameras imported from America.60


MFP’s filmmaking went from strength to strength, producing 162 movies until its closure in 1967.61 For the sheer production volume, Shaw Brothers was credited with sparking the golden age of Malay films. This period was also known as the Studio Era, during which talents and all aspects of film were controlled by owners of the studio. Such vertical integration was not only adopted by Shaw but also by its main competitor, Cathay-Keris, and it guaranteed new releases from each company practically every month during the peak of Malay movies (from the late 1950s to the mid-’60s).62 Shaw also produced the most prominent movie talent, P. Ramlee, who enabled Shaw Brothers and Malay films to hold their own against other Asian giants through his wins at the Asian Film Festival.63

Closure of MFP
In 1956, Runme and Run Run poured a few millions into the construction of a large and lavish studio in Hong Kong. They planned to leapfrog into the global film distribution by making productions starring both Hong Kong and American stars.64 Months later, an early sign of trouble appeared at the Jalan Ampas studio: A strike involving 120 MFP staff occurred out of their unhappiness with Shaw’s dismissal of five employees who were trade unionists. Henceforth, rising unionism and tense political developments in ’60s began to sap the life of the Malay film industry.65 At the same time, the popularity of foreign films not only competed with ticket sales but also heightened audience perception that Malay films were cheap and outdated. Shaw’s Malay movie production slowed down from 1963, and four years later, the studio on Jalan Ampas closed.66 MFP’s last movie, Raja Bersiong (King with the Fangs), was praised for its lavish production but failed at the box office.67 By then, Run Run had moved to Hong Kong to concentrate on movie production at his sprawling “Movie Town” studio,68 while Runme stayed behind in Singapore to look after Shaw operations in Singapore and Malaysia. In 1971, the Shaw Singapore and Hong Kong firms, headed by Runme and Run Run respectively, were run as two separate entities.69

Industry competition and diversification
In the 1980s, the Shaw empire spanned more than 160 theatres across Southeast Asia and North America with a studio in Hong Kong. These enterprises came mainly under two independent groups: Shaw and Shaw Pte Ltd, which ran Shaw operations in Singapore and Malaysia, and Shaw Organisation (Hong Kong), which took care of Hong Kong and the rest of the world. The first was headed by Vee Ming, son of Run Run, and the second by Run Run himself. Other second-generation Shaw family members helming the empire were Run Run’s son, Harold, and Runme’s son, Vee King.70

In the 1980s, cinema attendances had been falling due to competition from television, video recorders71 and video piracy,72 causing Shaw to slice its chain.73 Shaw resorted to building and operating multiplexes that are more cost-effective as they feature four or more screens. They also diversified into the property market, a move that had started a few decades ago.74 The multiplexes were a big hit and grew with the return of the movie craze in Singapore in the 1990s.75

In 1988, in a further streamlining move, Shaw’s activities in Singapore that were run by more than a dozen subsidiaries were brought together under a new holding company called Shaw Organisation Pte Ltd. Registered on 21 October 1988, this new entity covered Shaw’s investments in property, finance, entertainment and management services. The change was also intended to qualify the group as a local operation. At the helm were Vee Ming, his brother Harold and cousin Vee King. At the time of this restructuring, Shaw was rejuvenating its cinema business with the redevelopment of Lido and Shaw House along Orchard Road and the refurbishing of their suburban cinemas.76

By 1997, Shaw property investments, distinguished by its S$100-million Shaw House on Orchard Road, made up 85 percent of Shaw’s profits while its traditional cinema business accounted for around seven percent. As Shaw Organisation entered the 21st century, one of its hallmarks, apart from being a trendsetter in the cinema industry, was the company’s many long-time employees who made up 15 to 20 percent of its workforce. Keeping the business within the family was another tradition, with Run Run’s grandson Christopher Shaw looking after the company’s film distribution as Shaw’s senior manager in 2004. By then, Shaw Organisation still had an impressive chain of 37 screens and seven cineplexes to boast of.77



Author
Nor Afidah Abd Rahman




References
1. Sam, J. (1985, March 10). How Runme Shaw built an empire. Singapore Monitor, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. The earliest Shaw studio was in the brothers’ hometown, Shanghai. They set up a branch studio in Hong Kong in 1934, but relocated to Hong Kong and closed the studio in Shanghai when the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) broke out: Zhang, Y., & Xiao, Z. (1998). Encyclopedia of Chinese film. Routledge: London, pp. 33–34. (Call no.: RART 791.43095103 ZHA); Zhang, Y. (2004). Chinese national cinema. New York: Routledge, p. 42. (Call no.: RART 791.430951 ZHA); Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen: A preliminary study. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 1. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
3. Zhang, Y. (2004). Chinese national cinema. New York: Routledge, p. 37. (Call no.: RART 791.430951 ZHA); Zhang, Y., & Xiao, Z. (1998). Encyclopedia of Chinese film. Routledge: London, p. 9. (Call no.: RART 791.43095103 ZHA); Law, K., Bren, F., & Sam, H. (2004). Hong Kong cinema: A cross-cultural view. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, p. 57. (Call no.: LR 791.43095125 KAR-[ART]); Huang, X. (2014). Shanghai filmmaking: Crossing borders, connecting to the globe, 1922–1938. Leiden; Boston: Brill, p. 33. (Call no.: R 384.806551132 XUE); 1925: The start of a legendary studio. (n.d.). The Chinese mirror: A journal of Chinese film history. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from website: http://www.chinesemirror.com/index/2011/04/1925-start-legendary-studio.html
4. Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 1. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
5. 1925: The start of a legendary studio. (n.d.). The Chinese mirror: A journal of Chinese film history. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from website: http://www.chinesemirror.com/index/2011/04/1925-start-legendary-studio.html; Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 6. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
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7. Zhang, Y. (2004). Chinese national cinema. New York: Routledge, pp. 42–43, 47. (Call no.: RART 791.430951 ZHA); Chinese talkie being made. (1930, October 15). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
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11. Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 50. (Call no.: RSING q920.05957 CHE); Page 6 advertisements column 1. (1927, September 27). The Straits Times, p. 6; Page 6 advertisements column 1. (1928, February 23). The Straits Times, p. 6; Page 6 advertisements column 1. (1928, January 28). The Straits Times, p. 6; Page 6 advertisements column 1. (1928, February 23). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; 1925: The start of a legendary studio. (n.d.). The Chinese mirror: A journal of Chinese film history. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from website: http://www.chinesemirror.com/index/2011/04/1925-start-legendary-studio.html; Zhang, Y. (2004). Chinese national cinema. New York: Routledge, p. 191. (Call no.: RART 791.430951 ZHA); Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 6. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
12. Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 4. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
13. De Cruz, E. (1981, June 12). Malaysia’s very own Mogul. The Star, p. 20; from van der Heide, W. (2002). Malaysian cinema, Asian film: Border crossings and national cultures. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, p. 118. (Call no.: RSEA 791.43 VAN)
14. The man behind a film empire. (1988, February 16). The Straits Times, p. 3; New buildings for Taiping. (1937, July 6). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
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17. Hall, N. (1958, April 20). Showman Shaw declines to share secrets, says hard work and luck help. The Straits Times, p. 11; Page 5 advertisements column 2. (1958, April 28). The Straits Times, p. 5; Shows at half-price. (1968, November 8). The Straits Times, p. 4; Shaw plans a festival. (1971, September 15). New Nation, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Chua, A. L. (2015). Cultural consumption and cosmopolitan connections: Chinese cinema entrepreneurs in 1920s and 1930s Singapore. In C. G. Rea & N. Volland (Eds.), The business of culture: Cultural entrepreneurs in China and Southeast Asia, 1900–65. Toronto: UBC Press, p. 232. (Call no.: RSING 330.951 BUS); Directory of Malaya [Microfilm no.: NL 3330]. (1933). Singapore: Litographers, pp. 126, 129.
19. Singapore Business Directory. (n.d.). Malayan Theatres (Pte) Limited. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from SGP Business website: https://www.sgpbusiness.com/company/Malayan-Theatres-Pte-Limited
20. Singapore cinema to be air-conditioned. (1938, March 20). The Straits Times, p. 4; Alhambra to reopen in October. (1947, September 17). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Indian theatre’s jubilee. (1938, November 9). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Hongkong by air. (1936, April 24). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Mandarin only in Chinese talkies. (1936, December 27). The Straits Times, p. 4; New $70,000 Penang cinema. (1937, April 9). The Straits Times, p. 15; Sam, J. (1985, March 10). How Runme Shaw built an empire – and a legend. Singapore Monitor, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. Wong, A.-L. (2003). The Shaw screen. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, p. 27. (Call no.: RART q791.43095125 SHA)
25. Zhang, Y., & Xiao, Z. (1998). Encyclopedia of Chinese film. Routledge: London, p. 17. (Call no.: RART 791.43095103 ZHA); Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING q920.05957 CHE); Making the modern cinema human again. (1931, November 18). The Straits Times, p. 6; Chinese talkies in Malaya. (1935, May 17). The Straits Times, p. 13; Page 7 advertisements column 1. (1931, November 19). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
26. Chinese talkies in Malaya. (1935, May 17). The Straits Times, p. 13; The founder of Lee firms. (1935, May 17). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 11; Zhang, Y., & Xiao, Z. (1998). Encyclopedia of Chinese film. Routledge: London, p. 33. (Call no.: RART 791.43095103 ZHA)
27. Tivoli talkies. (1930, April 3). The Straits Times, p. 17; Johore cinema. (1939, March 23). The Straits Times, p. 14; New building for Taiping. (1937, July 6). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING q920.05957 CHE); Cantonese talkies to continue. (1937, January 17). The Straits Times, p. 22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. A Malayan cinema proprietor. (1935, April 29). The Straits Times, p. 12; Ipoh goes gay. (1935, September 17). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Singapore cinema to be air-conditioned. (1938, March 20). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
31. Fu, P. (Ed). (2008). China forever: The Shaw Brothers and diasporic cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, p. 141. (Call no.: RSEA 791.43095125 CHI); Local Poppy Day Fund’s new record: $40,000. (1940, November 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p, 3; Tan, H. L (1975, July 4). ‘Great World’ to make way for $100 m ‘town’.(1975, July 4). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
32. Shaw’s Great World park to be liquidated. (1964, March 1). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Great World sold to ‘Sugar King’. (1979, January 21). The Straits Times, p. 12; ‘Great World’ site bought by FEO for $60 m’ report. (1978, June 3). The Straits Times, p. 9. Flamingo closes after 40 years. (1978, October 26). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. The end of a World. (1987, July 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING q920.05957 CHE)
36. National Museum of Singapore. (2015, September 14). Step back into history as the National Museum of Singapore re-opens its permanent galleries [Press release]. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from National Museum of Singapore website: http://nationalmuseum.sg/~/media/nms/documents/media%20release_official%20re-opening%20of%20permamnent%20galleries_20150914.pdf
37. Pioneers of Singapore: Runme Shaw (1901–1985). (1986, April 13). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 52. (Call no.: RSING q920.05957 CHE); T.F. Hwang takes you down memory lane. (1984, March 7). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. There is no business like Shaw businesss. (1987, October 2). The Business Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
40. Real estate deals reach $25 millions. (1947, July 27). The Straits Times, p. 7; Runme wins damage award. (1956, June 7). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
41. Singapore’s new cinema. (1946, October 16). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
42. Shaw’s new cinema. (1959, February 3). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. Shaw Organisation. (n.d.). About Shaw. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from Shaw website: http://www.shaw.sg/sw_about.aspx
44. Shaw Organisation. (2007). Shaw cinemas, post war, Singapore (1945–1970). Retrieved 2016, April 14 from: http://www.shaw.sg/sw_abouthistory.aspx?id=75%20221%2063%20248%20103%20168%20240%20153%20225%2035%2039%2098%2054%2084%2093%2066
45. Film visitors. (1935, May 14). The Straits Times, p. 11; Varied interests of Mr. Ching Kee Sun. (1935, May 24). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 11; The founder of Lee firms. (1935, May 17). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Pasir Panjang ‘Hollywood’. (1933, May 21). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. Page 7 advertisements column 2. (1934, March 22). The Straits Times, p. 7; Amusements. (1934, March 27). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Page 7 advertisements column 2. (1934, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Malay talkie to be produced in Ipoh. (1937, June 9). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 9; Malay talkie to be made in Perak. (1937, June 9). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
50. Films to be made here. (1940, April 16). The Straits Times, p. 11; Chinese star for local film productions. (1940, April 16). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. ‘Mutiara’ begins season. (1940, July 24). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 2; Midnight premiere for Singapore-made film. (1940, July 22). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Page 7 advertisements column 1. (1941, April 9). The Straits Times, p. 7; Page 7 advertisements column 2. (1940, November 28). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
53. Page 7 advertisements column 1. (1941, April 9). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
54. Page 5 advertisements column 2. (1941, August 10). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Page 4 advertisements column 2. (1941, September 25). The Straits Times, p. 45. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Page 5 advertisements column 1. (1941, August 19). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. Bren, F. (2013, August). Woman in white: The unbelievable Wan Hoi-Ling. 《通讯, 65, 11. Retrieved 2016, April 14 from Hong Kong Film Archive website: http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/CE/CulturalService/HKFA/archive/newsletters/65/65_news_e.pdf
58. New film studio in Singapore planned. (1941, June 18). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
59. First post-war Malay film shown. (1947, November 16). The Straits Times, p. 3; Produced locally: Films in Singapore. (1947, November 12). The Singapore Free Press, p. 6; Untitled. (1947, August 29). The Straits Times, p. 5; Page 6 advertisements column 1. (1947, November 19). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Registry of Companies. (1949–1973). Malay Film Productions Ltd [Microfilm no.: ROC 743-06]. Available at the National Archives of Singapore.
60. Making films in S’pore. (1948, March 9). The Singapore Free Press, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
61. Amir Muhammad. (2010). 120 Malay movies. Petaling Jaya: Matahari Books, p. 12. (Call no.: RSEA 791.430899923 AMI); And now a water cut shock for the ‘get out’ actors. (1967, December 1). The Straits Times, p. 13. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. Amir Muhammad. (2010). 120 Malay movies. Petaling Jaya: Matahari Books, pp. 14–15. (Call no.: RSEA 791.430899923 AMI)
63. 4 ‘Oscars’ for Malaya in festival. (1956, June 17). The Straits Times, p. 1; Winning film nearly wasn’t entered. (1957, May 29). The Straits Times, p. 7; Hang Tuah for Berlin. (1957, June 18). The Straits Times, p. 7; Five awards at Film Festival. (1958, April 29). The Singapore Free Press, p. 12.Two film festival awards won by Malaya. (1963, April 20). The Straits Times, p. 1; ‘The Precipice’ (Japan) receives many prizes. (1959, May 9). The Straits Times, p. 6; Action from Ramlee. (1959, January 23). The Straits Times, p. 11; Shaw films win two Asian awards. (1964, June 25). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
64. Malayan movie millions for H.K. (1956, June 15). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
65. Actors on strike today. (1957, March 16). The Straits Times, p. 1; Adversity in the film industry. (1965, July 28). The Straits Times, p. 6; Film studio staff (with 27 stars) appeal to Shaw. (1967, October 21). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
66. Page 19 advertisements column 2: Malay Film Productions Limited. (1967, October 25). The Straits Times, p. 19. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
67. Amir Muhammad. (2010). 120 Malay movies. Petaling Jaya: Matahari Books, p. 15. (Call no.: RSEA 791.430899923 AMI)
68. ‘One never learns enough. I’m learning all the time’. (1981, February 8).The Straits Times, p. 11; Siu, P.-Y. (1971, July 2). The sword epics that smash all box office records. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
69. Shaw (H.K.) may go public. (1971, September 24). New Nation, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
70. Lim, T. (1984, December 19).Expanding from Shaw to Shaw. The Business Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
71. Plans to convert Rex into discotheque. (1985, November 22). The Business Times, p. 3; Shaw leases its cinemas in Malaysia. (1987, March 23). The Straits Times, p. 19. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
72. We Shaw will miss old Woodlands cinema. (1999, July 16). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
73. Shaw cinemas starved out by video craze. (1983, January 27). Singapore Monitor, p. 6; Shaw leases its cinemas in Malaysia. (1987, March 23). The Straits Times, p. 19. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
74. We Shaw will miss old Woodlands cinema. (1999, July 16). The Straits Times, p. 3.; Odeon to stop screening movies in June. (1984, March 27). Singapore Monitor, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
75. Soh, F. (1992, August 3). Frenetic race to build more cinemas. The Straits Times, p. 20. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
76. Shaw brings subsidiaries under $100 m holding company. (1988, November 30). The Business Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
77. Yong, S. C. (2004, may 13). Graceful 80. Today, p. 30. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 14 April 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Corporations--Singapore
Organisations>>Companies
Motion picture industry--Singapore
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Leisure and entertainment
Heritage and Culture
Arts
Real estate business--Singapore
Organisations
Business enterprises
Arts>>Film