Singapore River (historical overview)



The Singapore River is located within the island’s Central Region.1 The 3.2-kilometre-long waterway – from its mouth to Kim Seng Bridge – has been the lifeline of Singapore for almost 200 years.2 Proof of its ancient beginnings lies in the Singapore Stone, which was discovered at the river mouth in 1819 with undecipherable inscriptions.3

Singapore’s rapid development in its early years was due largely to its strategic location and establishment as an entrepôt port.4 The port of Singapore traces its origins to the lower reaches of the Singapore River, where it developed and flourished for the first 40 years of the settlement’s history. The river-port’s waterways and quays were hubs of economic activity as flotillas of boats plied its waters, loading and unloading their goods for import or re-export. The river’s inadequate and unsuitable berthing facilities, coupled with the dramatic increase in shipping, led to the eventual development and growth of the New Harbour (later known as Keppel Harbour).5

History
The mouth of the Singapore River saw the beginnings of an ancient fishing village called Temasek, which was later renamed Singapura (“Lion City” in Sanskrit) by Sang Nila Utama, a Palembang prince from Srivijaya, sometime in 1299 . According to the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), Sang Nila Utama (also known as Sri Tri Buana) landed at Kuala Temasek, the estuary of the Singapore River, where he encountered “a strange beast with a red body, a black head and a white breast, which he took to be a lion”.6


The orang laut (“men of the sea”), or sea gypsies, were the earliest known inhabitants in the area around the river mouth, and they lived in sampan which served as house-boats.7 There were about a thousand of them in 1819, the year Stamford Raffles founded modern Singapore. The Orang Gelam, one of the tribes of the orang laut, occupied the area around the mouth of the Singapore River, which was the site of the ancient port of Temasek.8

In 1811, Temenggong Abdul Rahman arrived from Riau with his followers and set up a village on the left bank of the river mouth, governing both the orang laut as well as the Malays.9 On 6 February 1819, the temenggong, together with Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor, signed the historic treaty with Raffles that allowed the British East India Company to establish a trading post on the island.10

Before the arrival of the British, the Singapore River estuary had many large rocks, among which was one shaped like the sharp snout of a swordfish. The orang laut regarded this rock with reverence and made offerings to it. This estuary was also where William Farquhar, the first British Resident of Singapore, and his men found many skulls which had belonged to victims of pirates.11

Based on the treaty between Raffles, the sultan and the temenggong, “all Chinese should move over to the other side of the river, forming a kampong from the site of the large bridge (conjectured to be present-day Elgin Bridge) down the river towards the mouth; and all Malays, people belonging to the temenggong and others should also remove to the other side of the river, forming their kampong from the site of the large bridge up the river towards the source”. The Chinese kampong became present-day Boat Quay.12

By the 1840s, the orang laut had largely disappeared from the river basin. The dispersal of the sea gypsies from the river appears to have been the result of official pressure, as they had become a nuisance when river traffic increased.13

Description
Fondly referred to as “The River”, the Singapore River spans 3.2 km from the sea to its upper reaches at Kim Seng Road.14 Singapore River, as well as the Kallang, Whampoa, Rochor and Geylang rivers, are collectively known as the Kallang Basin, which forms almost a third of Singapore’s drainage catchment.15


Boat Quay was the first to have offices, warehouses, godowns and jetties built along its banks in 1823. Subsequent developments continued up-river, along the banks of Clarke Quay, Robertson Quay, and later even further upstream, near the upper reaches and the source of the Singapore River at Alexandra Canal (formerly a river), as demarcated by Kim Seng Bridge.16 The buildings on the seaward side of Commercial Square (today’s Raffles Place) had their own jetties for passengers and cargo until the reclamation of the Collyer Quay waterfront in the 1860s.17

At the time of Raffles’s arrival, the left bank (which became Commercial Square) was a hill covered with jungle, while the right bank (what is now the Esplanade) was low jungle with a few houses and a large house belonging to Temenggong Abdul Rahman.18

Economic activities
Singapore’s free port status and strategic location attracted all types of sailing craft, especially those plying the trade routes between India and China. From the beginning, the Singapore River had been the focal point of trading activities. The river’s calm waters served as the harbour for the growing settlement.19


Farquhar had proposed that Kampong Gelam (today’s Kampong Glam) be developed as the business quarter, but was vetoed by Raffles who wanted the business quarter to be located on the near side of the Singapore River in spite of its swampy land, the lack of arable water and the costs involved in land reclamation. A small hill near Tanjong Singapura in Lorong Tambangan (today’s Raffles Place) was then broken up and the earth used for the reclamation.20 This was completed within three or four months. It was during this time that the Singapore Stone was unearthed by Chinese workers.21

Upon his return to Singapore in October 1822, Raffles found that several European merchants had built houses along the river on the Esplanade side in the space he had reserved for public purposes. While he did not insist on their immediate eviction, the owners were told not to spend any more money on their houses.22

Raffles moved the business sector from the East Beach (east of the freshwater stream, now the Stamford Canal)23 to the swampy southwest bank of the Singapore River, where the Chinese had built their houses. The Chinese were moved further inland, and a hill was levelled to form Commercial Square. The earth was used to fill in the swamp to form Boat Quay. The temenggong’s village was moved three miles to the west, along the coast between Tanjong Pagar and Telok Blangah. This cleared the river for trade and, at the same time, removed the temenggong and his followers from the heart of the town.24

The government retained use of the river’s east bank and Forbidden Hill (today’s Fort Canning), while the southwest tip at the river’s mouth was used as a defence point. Raffles allocated the whole area west of the river adjoining the commercial quarter to the Chinese (Chinatown), while the Indians were allotted land further up-river at Chulia Street.25 Merchants built offices, godowns and jetties along Boat Quay, Clarke Quay and Robertson Quay to facilitate loading and unloading of goods.26

In the early days, many Europeans lived above their offices at Boat Quay and Commercial Square, but by 1830, most offices had moved across to the east bank fronting the Esplanade and along the beach.27 The first quay was built in 1823 at Boat Quay, where major companies first set up in Singapore. This included the first European trading house founded by Alexander Laurie Johnston in 1820 as well as offices and warehouses owned by Edward Boustead, Yeo Kim Swee and Tan Kim Seng. Trade on the Singapore River was dominated by the Hokkien and Teochew Chinese communities. The bigger wholesalers had their offices by the river and godowns some distance away, while the small ones operated from shophouses by the river.28

The Singapore River was the heart of the town, and up to the 1840s, all shipping activities were concentrated at its mouth and along the crescent-shaped Boat Quay.29 Beyond this main commercial centre, a supplementary trading area sprang up at the estuary of the Rochor and Kallang rivers.30

Despite the lack of natural resources and production facilities, Singapore’s exports –  such as silk, porcelain, tea and rice from China; spices, coffee and gold dust from the Celebes; pepper, ironware, guns, cotton and textiles from other parts of Asia31 –  amounted to 6 million Spanish dollars within the first five years of the settlement’s founding, and its resident population grew to 11,000.32

By the 1840s, berthing facilities at the Singapore River had become inadequate for further expansion. However, there was a reluctance on the part of the merchants to move businesses from Boat Quay until the advent of steamships, which required deeper water and were powered by coal. This, together with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, led to a dramatic increase in the volume of shipping passing through Singapore.33

By the 1860s, three-quarters of Singapore’s shipping business was conducted in Boat Quay, and the Singapore River was choked with vessels. As a result, wharfs were built at the New Harbour to ease shipping demands.34 Trade growth gradually extended upstream, and by the late 1890s, there were godowns, rice mills, sawmills, Chinese-owned boat yards, and an assortment of other trades along the river. In the 1930s, the areas nearer the upper reaches of the river became heavily industrialised. For instance, Tan Kah Kee established his company Kiam Aik at the junction of North Boat Quay and River Valley Road in 1904, and it dealt in rice and later rubber, until it closed down in 1934 due to the Great Depression.35

River transport 
The economic importance of Singapore River increased when the reclamation of Telok Ayer Bay prevented junks from anchoring at its shoreline, thereby necessitating the use of the river as an alternative transportation route.36


The river divided Singapore into the “commercial” and “government” sectors. Before the construction of bridges, those who wished to cross the river travelled on dhonies (English spelling of Tamil word thonee), which were river-crossing sampan.37

The range of trading ships from around the region and other parts of the world that plied Singapore River were diverse. These included East Indiaman and clippers from India and the West; junks from China; the palari, golekkan, lambo and leteh-leteh from the Indonesian Archipelago; the wangkang and tope  from Siam and Cochin China; and the tongkang and pinas from the Malay Peninsula.38


Lighters (also known as tongkang or bumboats), imported from southern India by the East India Company, transported goods for import and re-export to and from the warehouses at Boat Quay.39 With increased mechanisation on the quays, the crew of each lighter was subsequently reduced by half, with two men comfortably operating a fully loaded lighter.40 The River Clean-up Campaign, which began in September 1983, saw the last of a few hundred lighters and small boats on their final journey out of the river to Pasir Panjang.41 In July 2002, converted bumboats began operating as river taxis carrying sightseeing passengers, with pickup and disembarkation points along Boat Quay and Clarke Quay.42

Later developments
The influx of immigrants and growth in trade contributed to the pollution of Singapore’s rivers, especially along the quays and river banks. Early industries also played a part. These included the preparation of nipah leaves for cigarette wrappers, which led to a dense mass of waste leaf fragments, and gambier processing for the tanning and dyeing industries, which produced waste products. Sago production on the banks of the Singapore River led to huge amounts of waste water being discharged into the river as the pith of the sago palm had to be washed repeatedly. Seaweed processing also added to the filth.43

After the river clean-up campaign in the 1980s, the stone-walled banks of the river were repaired, new buildings including hotels were constructed, and old-time riverine and quayside businesses gave way to al fresco dining, live music entertainment and disco dancing. Today, the Singapore River is the venue for many public events and activities, including the Singapore River Regatta (since 1983),44 River Nights Heritage Festival,45 and the Singapore River Festival (since 2008).46

Key features and landmarks along the river
Singapore Stone

This stone was unearthed in 1819 during the reclamation of the swamps. In 1843, it was blown into fragments by Acting Settlement Engineer, Captain D. H. Stevenson,47 to make way for the quarters of the commander of Fort Fullerton.48

Bridges
The first bridge to be built across Singapore River was Presentment Bridge, constructed in 1822. The wooden footbridge was demolished and replaced with another wooden footbridge, Thomson’s Bridge, in 1844. In 1862, Thomson’s Bridge was replaced by an iron structure and named Elgin Bridge. This bridge was demolished in 1927 and the current Elgin Bridge opened to traffic in 1929.49

Other bridges that span the Singapore River include Coleman Bridge (1840),50 Kim Seng Bridge (1862),51 Cavenagh Bridge (1869),52 Read Bridge (1889),53 Anderson Bridge (1910),54 Clemenceau Bridge (1940),55 Esplanade Bridge (1997)56 and Jubilee Bridge (2015).57 Before the construction of the bridges, the public relied on ferries, which charged one duit per trip to cross the river.58

Fort Fullerton
Fort Fullerton was a small military post on the southern side of the river mouth. Work began in 1819 immediately after the settlement was established, but it was completed only in 1858. However, it was criticised for drawing enemy fire into the centre of town in the event of war. The fort was demolished in 1865 and an observatory was built over the site in 1893.59

Merlion
Singapore’s tourism symbol, the Merlion, is situated at the mouth of the Singapore River. It was completed in May 1972.60

Commemorative plaque
This plaque marks Raffles’s landing site at the mouth of the Singapore River, beside the Asian Civilisations Museum. It was officially unveiled by then Acting President Yeoh Ghim Seng on 3 February 1972.61

Dalhousie Obelisk
The Dalhousie Obelisk at Empress Place commemorates Lord Marquis Dalhousie’s  visit to Singapore in 1850. Dalhousie was then the Governor-General of British India.62


The three quays63
Boat Quay: A vibrant dining and entertainment venue today.
Clarke Quay: A stretch of godowns and warehouses converted for recreation and entertainment.
Robertson Quay: A food, entertainment and residential hub.

Parliament House

The Old Parliament House building at Empress Place was constructed in 1827 by G. D. Coleman as the private residence of merchant John Argyle Maxwell. However, Maxwell never moved in as the government took over the building for use as a courthouse. The building was refurbished and reopened as The Arts House, a venue for performing and visual arts, in 2004.64

Riverside Point  
A retail, entertainment and office project opposite Clarke Quay, launched in 1996.65

Central Mall
A riverside mall situated above the Clarke Quay Mass Rapid Transit station. It was opened in 2007.66



Authors

Vernon Cornelius-Takahama & Damien Wang



References
1. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1994). Singapore River planning area: Planning report. Singapore: Author, p. 4. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
2. Savage, V. R., et al. (2004, September). The Singapore River thematic zone: Sustainable tourism in an urban context. The Geographical Journal, 170(3), 212–225, p. 215. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
3. Miksic, J. N. (1984). Archaeological research on the “Forbidden Hill” of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning. Singapore: National Museum, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 MIK-[HIS]); Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 1. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
4. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 9. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS]); Wong, L. K. (1978, March). Singapore: Its growth as an entrepot port,1819–1941. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 9(1), 50–84. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/ 
5. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, pp. 11–12. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
6. Sheppard, M. (Ed.). (1982). Singapore 150 years. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 38—39. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 2. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS]); Linehan, W. (1947, December). The kings of 14th century Singapore. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 20(2 (142)), 117–127, pp. 117, 120. Retrieved from  JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
7. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore: 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS]); Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
8. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 5. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS]); Miksic, J. N. (1984). Archaeological research on the “Forbidden Hill” of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning. Singapore: National Museum, p. 34. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 MIK-[HIS])
9. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore: 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 29. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS]); Miksic, J. N. (1984). Archaeological research on the “Forbidden Hill” of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning. Singapore: National Museum, p. 34. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 MIK-[HIS]); Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 5. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
10. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 1. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-HIS))
11. Sheppard, M. (Ed.). (1982). Singapore 150 years. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 98. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Singapore. Oral History Department. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
12. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 8. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
13. Singpapore. Oral History Department. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN); Berry, L. (1982). Singapore River: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS]); Sheppard, M. (Ed.). (1982). Singapore 150 years. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 123. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
14. Savage, V. R., et al. (2004, September). The Singapore River thematic zone: Sustainable tourism in an urban context. The Geographical Journal, 170(3), 212–225, p. 215. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
15. Singapore. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1994). Singapore River planning area: Planning report. Singapore: Author, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
16. Public Utilities Board. (2016, June 30). Alexandra Canal. Retrieved June 12, 2017 from PUB website: https://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/explore/alexandracanal
17. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
18. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN); Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore: 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 29. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS])
19. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1994). Singapore River planning area: Planning report. Singapore: Author, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 S); Abdullah Abdul Kadir. (2009). The Hikayat Abdullah (A. H. Hill, Trans.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, p. 164. (Call no.: RSEA 959.5 ABD.IN)
20. Abdullah Abdul Kadir. (2009). The Hikayat Abdullah (A. H. Hill, Trans.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, p. 164. (Call no.: RSEA 959.5 ABD)
21. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, pp. 10–11. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
22. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore: 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 74. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS])
23. If Raffles had unlikely that Raffles Place. (1952, August 30). The Singapore Free Press, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
25. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS]); Singapore Survey Department (1828). Plan of the Town of Singapore by Lieut Jackson [Map]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
26. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1994). Singapore River planning area: Planning report. Singapore: Author, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
27. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 45. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
28. Oral History Department. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 42. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
29. Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 45. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
30. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
31. Singapore chronicles. (1995). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 191. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
32. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
33. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS]); Turnbull, C. M. (1989). A history of Singapore, 1819–1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 45. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
34. Singapore. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1994). Singapore River planning area: Planning report. Singapore: Author, p. 7. (Call no.: RSING 711.4095957 SIN)
35. Singapore. Oral History Department. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
36. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
37. Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS])
38. Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS]); Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
39. Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS]); Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
40. Berry, L. (1982). Singapore’s river: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 49. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS]) 
41. Singapore. Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN); Berry, L. (1982). Singapore’s river: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 49. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS])
42. River taxis. (2002, July 20). The New Paper, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
44. Racing down the river. (1983, December 10). Singapore Monitor, p. 33. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore Dragon Boat Association. (n.d.). 34th Singapore River Regatta 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2017 from Singapore Dragon Boat Association website: http://sdba.org.sg/events/34th-singapore-river-regatta-2016%E2%80%8F/
45. Festivals. (2014, July 18). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Wong, T. (2008, March 29). Making waves. The Strait Times, p. 49. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore River One. (2016). River Connections 4–5 Nov 2016. Retrieved 2017, June 13 from Singapore Festival website: http://www.srf.sg/index.html
47. Famous stone blown to bits. (2013, September 3). The Straits Times, p. 17. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, pp. 11–12. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS]); Oral History Department. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
49. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS]); Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford, pp. 30–31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS])
50. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
51. Kim Seng Bridge. (1954, December 8).  The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Sheppard, M. (Ed.). (1982). Singapore 150 years. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 145. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS]) 
53. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
54. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
55. Clemenceau Bridge at Pulau Saigon. (1940, March 30). The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Bridge to smoother traffic. (1997, July 31). The New Paper, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. Yang, C. (2015, November 29). Jubilee Big Walk, flagged off by PM Lee, marks high point of SG50 celebrations. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
58. Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
59. Berry, L. (1982). Singapore’s river: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS])
60. A $100,000 pride… (1972, May 26). New Nation, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
61. Dr. Yeoh for Raffles landing ceremony. (1972, January 24). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. The Dalhousie Obelisk. (1971, September 17). New Nation, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
63. Life along the river. (1986, December 27). The Business Times, p. 2; Chee, F. (2006, October 1). Drop anchor at this quay. The Straits Times, p. L10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG;
64. Upside-down ‘cups’ on the roof. (1990, January 4). The Straits Times, p. 1; Oon, C. (2004, February 18). From stately to arty. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
65. Riverside talking point. (1996, April 11). The Business Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
66. Teo, J. (2006, January 20). Far East ties up with Parco to run mall at Clarke Quay. The Straits Times, p. 64; Yip, M. (2007, January 26). Mall than meets the eye. The Straits Times, p. 84. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. 

Subject
Streets and Places
Singapore River (Singapore)
Rivers--Singapore
Waterways--Singapore
Law and government>>Safety administration>>Marine transportation
Architecture and Landscape>>Streets and Places
History>>Asia>>Southeast Asia>>Singapore