Part-time branch libraries



Part-time branch libraries were started by the Raffles Library (renamed the National Library in 1960) to bring library services closer to the public in suburban areas.1 A total of eight part-time branch libraries were opened between 1953 and 1987,2 most of them situated in social welfare or community centres. Being part-time, they only operated in the afternoons and evenings. As a result of the National Library’s plan to decentralise library services through the opening of fulltime branch libraries, part-time branch libraries were gradually closed in the 1970s and 80s.3

History
The idea of setting up a branch library was first raised in 1940 by the Straits Settlements (Singapore) Association as a means to improve the Raffles Library, but the proposal was not carried out due to a lack of funds.4 In 1951, the government announced the decision to open branches of the Raffles Library throughout Singapore,5 with the first to be established at Upper Serangoon Road. The idea behind these branch libraries was to “make books go to the people instead of people coming to the books”.6 Initially, there were plans to open four branches, each carrying about 2,000 volumes including dictionaries, encyclopedias, trade directories, reference books and fiction titles.7 Books in Chinese, Malay and Tamil were also to be made available at these libraries.8


A total of eight part-time branch libraries were opened, with the first four located in community centres. In 1964, the National Library planned to open more part-time libraries in small shops situated in heavily populated areas instead, as community centres were not sited in high-traffic areas, which meant that libraries were not being utilised to their full capacities.9 As a result, the National Library worked with the Housing and Development Board (HDB) to look into renting or acquiring suitable shop spaces in housing estates such as Queenstown, Jurong and Kallang to establish branch libraries.10

Part-time libraries likely followed the Raffles Library in using the Browne System for issuing books when it was introduced by L. M. Harrod, Librarian of the Raffles Library, in 1955.11 In the early years, there was a member subscription fee of $1.50 per quarter, on top of a deposit of $2.50,12 until subscription ceased in 1958, when the Raffles Library became Singapore’s free national library.13 Loans were for a period of 14 days, while overdue loans were subjected to a fine of five cents per day like the Raffles Library.14 Books at the part-time libraries were sometimes obtained as gifts from organisations such as the British Council, the United States Information Service and the Sikh Missionary Society.15

The libraries were generally well used by residents in the surrounding areas,16 and were popular with young readers.17 However, following the establishment of fulltime branch libraries under the National Library’s policy to decentralise services, usage at the part-time libraries declined,18 and they were gradually phased out.19 Eventually, the last part-time library, situated in Whampoa, closed on 30 July 1987.20

Upper Serangoon Part-time Branch Library (1953–60)
Upper Serangoon Part-time Branch Library, located within the Social Welfare Centre on Lim Ah Pin Road, was the first branch library established by the Raffles Library. Its opening day on 29 December 1953 saw a visit by then Colonial Secretary William A. C. Goode and his wife. The library started with about 2,000 books including reference, non-fiction and juvenile titles.21

Under the charge of Sunny Chiok Hock Siew, a former librarian clerk at the Raffles Library, and an assistant,22 the Upper Serangoon Part-time Branch Library opened four times a week – from 3 to 8 pm on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and 2 to 5 pm on Saturdays, with the later opening hours meant to cater to working adults.23 In June 1960, this branch library was closed because its premises were taken over by the Ministry of Health.24

Siglap Part-time Branch Library (1954–81)
Siglap Part-time Branch Library was the second part-time branch of the Raffles Library. Opened on 1 July 1954, it was housed in the Social Welfare Community Centre located at the junction of East Coast Road and Palm Road.25 The librarian clerk in charge was Vincent Yap, formerly a staff from the Raffles Library.26 Like the Upper Serangoon branch library, it also started with about 2,000 books in its collection, which included junior and senior sections.27 It initially opened four times a week, from 3 to 8pm on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays, and 2 to 5pm on Saturdays, with opening hours extended in 1963 to 10am to 5pm on Saturdays.28 By the 1960s, however, the weekday opening hours had been changed to 2 to 8pm on Mondays and Wednesdays, while Saturday’s opening hours remained unchanged, totaling 19 hours of operations per week.29


In its later years, the library organised storytelling sessions in English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil during the week as well as special programmes for children, such as film screenings, during the school holidays.30 It closed on 20 March 1981 due to declining usage after the opening of the fulltime Marine Parade Branch Library in 1978, which provided residents in the vicinity with a wider selection of books and a more conducive atmosphere.31

Joo Chiat Part-time Branch Library (1955–74)
Joo Chiat Part-time Branch Library was the third part-time branch library of the Raffles Library. The library did not start out as a branch under the Raffles Library; it was established in 1949 as a public library in the new Joo Chiat Community Centre built by the Department of Social Welfare and was supported by the British Council, which donated £300 worth of books to the library. Besides the library, the community centre also housed other amenities such as the Katong Boys’ Club and a children’s social centre.32 The library was declared open on 9 August 1949 by Lady Gimson, wife of then Governor Franklin Gimson. The Katong district was chosen as the location due to its largely English-speaking population and distinctively Singaporean characteristic.33


The library opened every Monday to Saturday from 3 to 8pm, and every Sunday from 6 to 9pm. The extended operational hours catered to working adults, who paid a subscription fee of 25 cents per month, while children were charged 10 cents per month. A deposit of $1 was required to loan a book.34 It was administered by the Friends of the Library Society35 and manned by volunteers. Books could only be loaned out by adult members as the library held a low number of books, yet it was well-used, often resulting in empty shelves.36

On 18 April 1955, the library was formally reopened as a lending library by Han Hoe Lim, who became its first library member. Director of Social Welfare T. P. Cromwell and his wife were its second and third members. When it opened, the library had 1,500 books gifted by various public institutions and private donors.37 On 1 October 1955, the library management was handed over to the Raffles Library,38 becoming its third part-time branch library. It operated on Mondays and Wednesdays from 2 to 8pm, and on Saturdays from 10am to 5pm.39

In the 1970s, the National Library announced plans to open a third fulltime branch in Katong by 1974 to replace the part-time branches in Joo Chiat and Siglap.40 The plan was aligned with the HDB’s masterplan for the East Coast reclamation project, which included the development of three commercial centres in Joo Chiat, Siglap and Bedok.41 The proposed commercial centre in Joo Chiat would include a fulltime branch library, the third to be established by the National Library,42 and would be sited at the former premises of the Joo Chiat Community Centre. In 1974, Joo Chiat Community Centre was demolished to make way for the new commercial centre.43 Joo Chiat part-time library was closed on 1 June 1974 as a result of the demolition, and its members were transferred to the mobile library service in Joo Chiat.44 The mobile library continued to serve members until 1 November 1978, when the new Marine Parade fulltime library opened to the public.45

Yio Chu Kang Branch Library (1956–60)
Yio Chu Kang Part-time Branch Library was the fourth part-time branch of the Raffles Library. Although it began operations on 20 November 1956, it was officially opened on 24 November 1956 in Yio Chu Kang Community Centre at Yio Chu Kang Road by then Chief Minister Lim Yew Hock.46 It was established amidst the Raffles Library’s move to include more books in languages other than English.47 As the first Chinese branch of the Raffles Library, it consisted mainly of Chinese books, with about 1,000 Chinese titles and 500 English titles on subjects ranging from fiction to the classics.48

This part-time library came about when a principal of one of the village’s schools donated a batch of books to the Raffles Library to administer. The Yio Chu Kang branch library was well patronised by students from the school situated opposite the library. Initially, a rota system of volunteers managed the library, but it soon failed when the volunteers left, leaving the principal and one volunteer to run it.49 In 1959, Minister for Labour and Law K. M. Byrne announced the demolition of the plank-and-attap community centre building and the reconstruction of a new building at its site, as part of the government’s wider plans to build and expand the network of community centres in rural areas.50 This spelt the end of the Yio Chu Kang part-time library. In June 1960, the part-time library closed after the site was taken over by the Ministry of Labour and Law.51

Chai Chee Part-time Branch Library (1974–81)
Chai Chee Part-time Branch Library was the fifth part-time branch of the National Library. Situated at Block 28 Chai Chee Avenue, it was then the National Library’s largest part-time branch library. It was also the first time that a rental shophouse belonging to the HDB was used to provide library services to the public. It was opened by then Senior Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Culture Haji Sha’ari Tadin on 9 November 1974.52


It had an initial book collection of 15,120 books. Besides books and magazines for all ages in the four official languages of English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil, the library also had a small collection of reference books. It had 50 seats for readers. As a part-time library, it opened three times a week – 2 to 8pm on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 10am to 5pm on Saturdays53 – providing 19 hours of service weekly. Service hours were increased to 20 hours per week in 1979 when it opened an hour earlier at 9am on Saturdays.54 The library was well used by the public, with membership in 1976 doubling that in 1974.55 During the week, it provided storytelling sessions in the four languages as well as special programmes such as film screenings during school holidays.56 In January 1981, the library was moved to Bedok Town Centre after the shophouse was found to be structurally unsafe and was closed. Following the relocation, the library was renamed Bedok Branch (Part-time).57

Jurong Part-time Branch Library (1977–88)
Jurong Part-time Branch Library was the sixth part-time branch of the National Library. It began operations on 15 November 197758 at the Jurong Town Community Centre located on Yung An Road, providing a weekly loan service for adults and young children. With a floor area of 87 sqm, it could seat about 45 people. Initially, the library offered about 1,000 books written in the four languages and operated only on Tuesdays from 2 to 8pm. From 1 October 1978, however, service increased to 12 hours per week with the library also opening on Fridays from 2 to 8pm. In the following year, its service hours increased again to 18 hours per week59 when it began operating on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 3 to 9pm.60 Although the new estate of Jurong had a population of about 90,000, usage of the library was low: In 1977, it only had 17 members, which increased to 80 the following year.61


On 15 December 1978, Jurong Community Centre received a donation of S$3,000 from Esso Singapore for the library to purchase books on Asian cultures and values as well as bilingualism.62 By 1979, more activities were held at the library, such as storytelling sessions in the four languages and special programmes such as movie screenings during the school holidays.63 It also started a loan service for children under 14 years old in late August 1979.64

In 1981, the National Library announced plans to open eight fulltime libraries in various housing estates, one of which was Jurong. With the opening of these libraries, part-time and mobile libraries were to be phased out.65 This was confirmed in 1982 by Director of the National Library Hedwig Anuar during the opening of the fulltime Bukit Merah Library.66 With the impending opening of the fulltime Jurong East library in August 1988, the part-time library closed on 23 May.67

Bedok Part-time Branch Library (1981–85)
Bedok Part-time Branch Library was the seventh part-time branch of the National Library. It was opened as a replacement of the Chai Chee Part-time Branch Library. It was opened on 14 January 1981 at Block 209 to replace Chai Chee Part-time Branch Library. The library was opened from 2 to 8pm on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 9am to 6pm on Saturdays.68 By 1983, due to a change in operational hours, it was providing 21 hours of public service per week.69

In 1981, the National Library announced plans to open eight full-time libraries in various housing estates, one of which was Bedok.70 This was confirmed in 1982, when Director of the National Library Hedwig Anuar revealed that a full-time branch library would be built in Bedok.71 With the completion and opening of Bedok branch library in 1985, the part-time branch library ceased operations on 15 August 1985.72

Whampoa Part-time Branch Library (1981–87)
Whampoa Part-time Branch Library was the eighth part-time branch library of the National Library. Situated at the void deck of Block 73 Whampoa Road, opposite Whampoa Community Centre, it began operations on 1 October 1981. It was the first void-deck library in Singapore,73 with an area of 288 sqm and costing the HDB S$50,000 to construct.74 It was originally meant to be located at the Whampoa Community Centre, but when the space became unavailable, the decision was made to set up the library at the void deck of one of the public housing blocks in the Whampoa estate.75


The library had an initial collection of 12,000 books as well as reference materials. It opened from 2 to 8pm on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and from 9am to 6pm on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, providing 43 hours of service per week. Programmes such as storytelling sessions and screenings of film shows were also organised to attract visitors.76 In 1985, due to limited usage and a drop in the loan rate, the number of operational days was halved,77 with the library providing 23 hours of service per week.78

On 30 July 1987, affected by HDB’s demolition exercise and in line with the National Library’s policy of gradually phasing out part-time libraries, the Whampoa library was closed,79 marking the end of the era of part-time branch libraries.



Author
Goh Lee Kim



References
1. Upper Serangoon folk will soon have their own library. (1951, October 6). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 100. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
2. Tweedie, W. F. (1953). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library 1953 [Microfilm no.: NL 5723]. Singapore: Raffles Museum and Library, p. 10; Around your place information. (1987, July 24). The Straits Times, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
3. Siglap library to close. (1981, March 15). The Straits Times, p. 10; Library to build more full-time branches. (1978, April 7). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1988). Annual report 1987/1988. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 6. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
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5. Govt. to open branch libraries in Singapore. (1951, September 10). Singapore Standard, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
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8. Upper Serangoon folk will soon have their own library. (1951, October 6). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
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10. Singapore. National Library Board. (1965). Annual report October 1963–September 1965. Singapore: National Library, [n.p.]. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
11. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 103. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
12. Upper Serangoon folk will soon have their own library. (1951, October 6). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5; Branch library opens July 1. (1954, June 23). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Rush to join National Library. (1958, April 11). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
14. $6,750 in fines on overdue books. (1955, February 17). Singapore Standard, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tweedie, W. F. (1954). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library 1954 [Microfilm no.: NL 5723]. Singapore: Raffles Museum and Library, p. 13.
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18. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
19. Library to build more full-time branches. (1978, April 7). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Around your place information. (1987, July 24). The Straits Times, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Tweedie, W. F. (1953). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library 1953 [Microfilm no.: NL 5723]. Singapore: Raffles Museum and Library, p. 10.
22. Libraries for rural areas: First set up. (1954, January 6). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. This is a happy suburb. (1954, May 31). The Singapore Free Press, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 120. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); New home for library. (1960, June 19). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Now Siglap gets library. (1954, June 23). The Singapore Free Press, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
26. Branch library popular. (1954, August 9). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Now Siglap gets library. (1954, June 23). The Singapore Free Press, p. 2; Branch library opens July 1. (1954, June 23). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Branch library popular. (1954, August 9). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5; Library: Longer hours. (1963, August 30). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. Singapore. National Library Board. (1963). Annual report 1960–1963. Singapore: Government Printing Office, p. 14. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
30. Mad rush when the library van comes. (1979, July 14). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
31. Closed on March 20. (1981, March 2). New Nation, p. 4; Siglap library to close. (1981, March 15). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1981). Annual report for the period April 1980–March 1981. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 12. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
32. Library for new centre. (1949, June 13). The Straits Times, p. 5; New library may lead to others. (1949, September 12). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. District library for Katong. (1949, August 10). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. New library may lead to others. (1949, September 12). The Straits Times, p. 5; S’pore has a new library. (1949, September 11). The Malaya Tribune, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. Friends to run library. (1949, October 23). Sunday Tribune, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
36. A library with empty shelves. (1950, January 8). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
37. Library opens in Joo Chiat. (1955, April 19). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Community library. (1955, October 2). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 105. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
39. Singapore. National Library Board. (1963). Annual report 1960–1963. Singapore: Government Printing Office, p. 14. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
40. Singapore. National Library Board. (1971). Report for the period 1 May 1969–31 December 1971. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 4. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
41. Campbell, W. (1971, August 8). Where 100,000 will live and play on reclaimed East Coast. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
42. 1976 target for Joo Chiat centre. (1974, November 26). New Nation, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. New centre soon for Joo Chiat. (1974, June 4). New Nation, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
44. Singapore. National Library Board. (1975). Annual report 1974. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 38. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
45. $3 million Katong library to open in November. (1978, September 6). The Straits Times, p. 8; Service to be stopped. (1978, September 21). New Nation, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Library for Yio Chu Kang villagers. (1956, November 21). Singapore Standard, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. Free library. (1957, September 14). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Library for Chinese is opened. (1956, November 21). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 107. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
50. The new-type community centres. (1959, August 11). The Straits Times, p. 4; Byrne checks on new sites for community centres. (1959, August 24). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 120. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
52. Library network to promote reading habit. (1974, November 10). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1975). Annual report 1974. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 12. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
53. Library network to promote reading habit. (1974, November 10). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1975). Annual report 1974. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 12. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
54. Singapore. National Library Board. (1980). Report for the period April 1979–March 1980. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 33. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN); Open earlier. (1979, May 3). The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Library lends record 2.5 mil books. (1976, January 30). The Straits Times, p. 13. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Mad rush when the library van comes. (1979, July 14). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. Singapore. National Library Board. (1980). Report for the period April 1979–March 1980. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN); New branch library. (1981, January 11). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
58. Singapore. National Library Board. (1978). Report for the period of April 1977–March 1978. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 22. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
59. Library. (1978, September 22). New Nation, p. 4; Atrium will be feature of Jurong East library. (1988, February 8). The Straits Times, p. 19. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1981). Annual report April 1980–March 1981. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 34. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
60. Library. (1980, February 23). New Nation, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
61. Jurong library. (1977, November 14). The S Times, p. 9; In a town of 90,000… Only 80 use Jurong branch library. (1978, May 10). New Nation, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. Esso’s gift. (1978, December 16). The Business Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
63. Mad rush when the library van comes. (1979, July 14). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
64. Book loans. (1979, September 3). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
65. National Library to build eight more branches. (1981, March 3). The Business Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
66. Libraries to be built in Bedok and Ang Mo Kio. (1982, December 29). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
67. Atrium will be feature of Jurong East library. (1988, February 8). The Straits Times, p. 19; Library to close. (1988, May 18). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
68. New branch library. (1981, January 11). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
69. Singapore. National Library Board. (1986). Report for the period FY85. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 35. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
70. National Library to build eight more branches. (1981, March 3). The Business Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
71. Libraries to be built in Bedok and Ang Mo Kio. (1982, December 29). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
72. Library opens. (1985, September 29). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1986). Report for the period FY85. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 35. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
73. Bookworms’ delight. (1981, December 16). New Nation, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 139. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
74. Chong, W. H. (1981, May 4). Library on the doorstep at AMK and Whampoa soon. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Singapore. National Library Board. (1980). Annual report April 1979–March 1980. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 15. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
76. Bookworms’ delight. (1981, December 16). New Nation, p. 8; Chong, W. H. (1981, May 4). Library on the doorstep at AMK and Whampoa soon. The Straits Times, p. 8; Singapore. National Library Board. (1982). Report for the period FY81 and FY82. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 7. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
77. Use study centre. (1986, February 3). The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
78. Singapore. National Library Board. (1986). Report for the period FY85. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 35. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)
79. Around your place information service. (1987, July 24). The Straits Times, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore. National Library Board. (1988). Annual report 1987/1988. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 6. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 SIN)



The information in this article is valid as at 2018 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history on the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Libraries
Public libraries--Singapore
Law and government>>Culture and community>>Public libraries
Architecture and Landscape>>Building Types>>Public Buildings>>Libraries
Branch libraries--Singapore