Raffles Library (1945-1960)

by Heirwin Mohd Nasir

The Raffles Museum and Library reopened to the public on 1 December 1945, with the Junior Library opening on 14 January 1946.1 In the post-war years between 1945 and 1960, the library went through several changes in administration, separated from the museum and moved to a new building.2

After the Occupation
On 6 September 1945, Lieutenant-Colonel Gilbert Archey, superintendent of Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives in the British Military Administration (BMA), took over the running of the Raffles Museum and Library. He began by taking stock of the damages and losses suffered by the museum and library during the war, and organised the task of returning abandoned publications collected by the library during the Japanese Occupation.3 Fortunately, due to the efforts of the Japanese directors, Kwan Koriba and Yata Haneda, and European staff Eldred John Henry Corner and William Birtwistle, the museum and library were largely protected from looting and suffered minimal losses to their collections.4


The Raffles Library reopened on 1 December 1945, with the Junior Library reopening on 14 January 1946.5 Like before, adult users who wanted to borrow books from the library had to pay a membership subscription and deposit. A first class subscription cost $16 and entitled a user to borrow four complete works per month; a second class subscription cost $12, and allowed two complete works to be borrowed a month; and a third class subscription cost $6, wherein one complete work could be loaned a month.6 However, both members and non-members could use the Reading Room to read the latest English magazines and periodicals for free, although borrowing items still required a membership subscription.7 In the library’s bid to return private publications collected during the Occupation and free up space, a list of known owners was compiled and kept in the library, with owners asked to make their claims before 31 October 1946.8

After Archey left on 7 March 1946, M. W. F. Tweedie, curator of the Raffles Museum before the Occupation, took over as director of the Raffles Museum and Library9 and returned to Singapore on 11 June.10 Usage of the library was good – by the end of 1946, it had a total of 3,850 members, a figure said to be the highest ever recorded for the library. Interestingly, the number of Asiatic members had doubled and, for the first time in the library’s history, outnumbered European members.11

A librarian, Hilde Witte (Mrs), took charge of the Raffles Library in October 1946, assisted by several administrative staff. Besides running the library and maintaining its collections, she also helped to answer enquiries from the public by searching for answers from the books.12

With the loss of about 8,000 books due to the war,13 one of Witte’s key tasks was to gradually replenish the library’s collections of fiction and non-fiction titles. The rate of replacement through the purchase of books was slow, as the library faced some difficulty in procuring books from England, which were often out of stock before orders could be made.14 The library also sought to build up the collections through a public call-out for book donations, and through the re-establishment of cooperation with foreign libraries to facilitate the exchange of journals and bulletins. As a result, the library held about 70,000 volumes by the end of 1947. Meanwhile, it continued to search for the owners of the private publications.15

When the British Council was established in Singapore in August 1947, it set up a temporary office within the Raffles Museum and Library building. Its regional representative, J. P. Lucas, began his task of updating the library’s reference section with the aim of improving the cultural development of Southeast Asia, which had been interrupted due to the war.16 In 1948, the British Council donated £3,000 to the library for the purchase of books, and another £1,000 for projects, including the purchase of library equipment. With this donation, the library was able to purchase more books to fill the gaps within its collections.17

Developing the library’s collections and services
The library also worked on the development of its collections. Special focus was placed on building up the library’s Malayan collection in the reference section, particularly in the area of history.18 The collections on Malayan zoology and anthropology were considered to be comprehensive due to the research carried out by the staff of the museum, while the rest of the reference section was not as extensive due to the high cost and large physical space required for such an endeavour.19 An amendment to the Printers and Publishers Ordinance in 1948 made it mandatory, with effect from 21 May 1948, for three copies of materials published in Singapore to be sent to the Raffles Museum and Library a month after printing.20 On 11 August 1949, the library became one of the worldwide networks of depository for United Nations publications, except for mimeographed material, due to staff shortage and spatial limitations.21


As the collections at the library grew, vandalism of books became a concern. Books and magazines were increasingly found to be stained, marked or torn. To remind users to treat the materials with care, notices were placed around the library and damaged books were put on display. Due to the prevalence of pictures being torn from books, the library even resorted to rubber-stamping pictures in books to deter users from such vandalism.22

In 1949, Witte retired and left Singapore in May, leaving the library without a librarian. The government began the search for a qualified replacement in February.23 The library soon faced calls for its services to be extended in terms of longer opening hours and more branch libraries. The extension of library services in the form of branch or district libraries to serve the wider public became a topic of discussion in May 1949 after a request was raised during a Legislative Council meeting. A district library that was started in Joo Chiat by the Department of Social Welfare and the British Council in 1949 also fuelled the discussion. The government eventually put the decision on library extension services on hold due to the lack of a qualified librarian helming the library.24 In the interim, a temporary librarian, Ivor Shelly (Mrs), had been appointed in July to run the library until one with a library qualification could be appointed in England.25

The government established a working committee in 1950 to study library services in Singapore and recommend improvements at the request of the Raffles Museum and Library Committee. Issues the working committee examined included the feasibility of separating the library and museum, as well as opening branch libraries under the Raffles Library.26 However, any plans the government had for the library’s extension were again put on hold when Shelly left Singapore for England in June 1950 without a replacement in sight for the rest of the year owing to the lack suitable applicants.27

Comparisons were inevitably drawn between the United States Information Service (USIS) Library and Raffles Library, after the former opened at Raffles Place on 2 May 1950.28 The USIS Library provided a service that the public had wanted from the Raffles Library – free lending services at a central location and longer operating hours (until 9 pm and opened on Sundays).29 As a testament to its popularity, the USIS library gained 5,000 members within two weeks of its opening.30

The Raffles Library eventually extended its opening hours by opening on Sundays and closing on Mondays from 15 October 1950.31 The switch was the result of the Weekly Holiday Ordinance coming into force on 1 July 1950, which guaranteed that employees covered by the ordinance did not have to work on Sundays.32 This was the first time that the library had opened on Sunday. The library’s circulation of books on a Sunday was reportedly three times that of other days.33

In March 1951, Louise E. Bridges was appointed to manage the Raffles Library. She was the first qualified librarian to have been hired since 1935.34 During her term, she made several significant changes to the library. Notably, to ensure the circulation of books, she successfully implemented a new system, which took effect from 16 June 1951, where an overdue fine of five cents per day per book was imposed. However, the total fine would not exceed the cost of the book or cost of repairing it.35 She also introduced a new classification method, called the Dewey Classification System, to catalogue, index and shelve the books. Using the $4,000 given by the British Council, she purchased new furniture and equipment as well as reorganised the shelves in the library. A new booking system was also implemented to ensure that members had the chance to borrow books that were popular. She also planned to install a slot at the front of the building for users to return books after library hours.36

With the appointment of a permanent librarian, the plan to establish branch libraries in the suburbs was finally approved by the government in 1951. The purpose, according to Bridges, was to make the books go to the people instead of people coming to the books. A total of four branches were approved, each to stock about 2,000 books in the four languages.37 This paved the way for the opening of the first branch library in the new community centre run by the Department of Social Welfare in Upper Serangoon at Lim Ah Pin Road. The second was to be opened in the Siglap area.38 However, Bridges resigned in August 1952 as she was getting married and the management of the library changed hands twice within the next two years:39 Joan Green (Mrs), a temporary librarian, took over in September,40 and was replaced by another temporary librarian,  G. F. W. Hudson (Mrs), in February 1953.41

In 1953, the Raffles Library extended its opening hours to 8 pm instead of 6 pm from 21 April, but reverted to closing on Sundays.42 This was made possible due to the installation of new fluorescent lights to illuminate the library at night.43 With this, more users could visit the library after work.44

The Serangoon part-time branch library opened on 29 December 1953 at the Social Welfare Centre at Lim Ah Pin Road. The opening was officiated by Colonial Secretary William A. C. Goode.45 The second part-time branch library opened on 24 June 1954 at the Siglap Social Welfare Centre.46 The government announced in July 1953 that it would be building a new free public library at the cost of $1 million. This library was to function as the centre for the development of a public library system in Singapore. The Lee Foundation, established by rubber tycoon, businessman and philanthropist Lee Kong Chian, pledged to contribute one-third of the cost by matching the government’s expenditure dollar-for-dollar, up to $375,000.47

The permanent librarian position was finally filled on 8 September 1954 by Leonard Montague Harrod, the former chief librarian and curator of Islington Public Libraries in the UK as well as the author of three books on libraries.48 He became the director of Raffles Library on 1 January 1955 when the administration of the library and museum separated and the administration of the Raffles Library was transferred from the director of the Raffles Museum and Library, to the librarian of the Raffles Library. Harrod was specially appointed to oversee the establishment of the new public library and a system of libraries for Singapore,49 plans of which had stalled due to the absence of a trained permanent librarian.50

During his leadership, the library became responsible for the government archives and books deposited under the Printers and Publishers Ordinance in 1955.51 Collections and services were expanded in 1956 when Harrod started an Oriental section at the library at a cost of $35,000 and began to acquire books in the vernacular languages of Chinese, Malay and Tamil.52 Music scores were also acquired and made available for loan in January 1957.53 On 20 November 1956, Yio Chu Kang part-time branch library, the first library to hold mainly Chinese books, was opened at the village community centre by Singapore’s Chief Minister Lim Yew Hock.54 In addition, plans were drawn up for the provision of mobile library services using three vehicles, which were to bring books to those living in suburban and rural areas.55 Harrod implemented the Browne system of issuing books and introduced a combined receipt for subscriptions and deposits. He also conceived a method of interchanging books among the branches to ensure that a varied selection of titles was available.56

Becoming a National Library
In 1955, plans and sketches of the new public library revealed that the building would have an outer façade layered with red bricks and comprise three storeys, two mezzanine floors, a courtyard and a fountain. It was to be located at Stamford Road, to the south of the existing Raffles Museum and Library building. The upper and lower ground floors were to house the headquarters for the mobile libraries and the lending and junior libraries, while offices and study carrels were to be located in the mezzanines. Other facilities available included an air-conditioned room for rare books, an open-air reading room, a Braille library for visually handicapped users, lecture halls for programmes and even a snack bar. It was estimated that $2 million would be needed for the construction of the building.57


In 1956, the government announced that it would bear the full cost of the construction of the new public library, which would act as Singapore’s national library as it would house the government archives and function as the repository for local publications.58 Called the Raffles National Library, it would also serve as the centre for the coordination of local library services, including the branch and mobile libraries.59 This was a reversal of the government’s decision in 1955 to indefinitely postpone building plans due to a lack of funds.60

Lee Kong Chian laid the foundation stone of the Raffles National Library on 16 August 1957 in a ceremony held at the site of the building. With him was then Minister of Education Chew Swee Kee, who thanked Lee for his generous donation of $375,000. He also announced that the library would be free for the public, in accordance with the Lee Foundation’s provision for the donation. Lee was later presented with the silver trowel he had used to lay the stone.61 Another $510,000 was subsequently added to the cost of the building from its initial estimate of $2 million. The increase was due to additional piling required due to ground conditions and the higher cost of building materials in 1957.62

On 11 September 1957, the Legislative Council passed the Raffles National Library bill, separating the administrations of the library, museum and Botanic Gardens, which were all previously under the Raffles Society Ordinance. When the Raffles National Library Ordinance came into effect on 1 April 1958, the library was renamed Raffles National Library.63 It also became a free library, meaning that members no longer had to pay a subscription fee, although a $10 refundable deposit was still required.64

The library subsequently underwent a reorganisation of its administration in 1959 to expand its vernacular collection in order to change the perception that the library was only for English-language readers. In addition, the decentralisation of facilities was sped up by providing more branch and mobile libraries, which were to carry books that were more suited to their users.65

Harrod retired from his directorship in January 1960.66 He was replaced by Hedwig Anuar (Mrs), who was the first Malayan and woman to head the library.67 In the same year, three mobile libraries started serving the residents in the suburban and rural areas, with a dedicated mobile library for schools, commencing on 5 September, to bring books to students fortnightly.68

1960 was also a milestone in the library’s history when it moved into its new building, which had received criticism over its design even before its opening. Architects who previewed the building in July criticised it for its “massive, clumsy and heavy” design. By that time, both the designer, Lionel Bintley, and Harrod, who had been involved in the design of the building, had already left Singapore.69 Nevertheless, the library gradually closed its various sections from 17 October to begin its move, completing its shift on 1 November and becoming operational on 2 November.70 On 12 November 1960, Yusof bin Ishak, the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, officially opened the new Raffles National Library building located at Stamford Road. Besides thanking Lee for his donation, he also thanked the Singapore Chinese Booksellers’ Association for donating its entire collection of 15,000 books to the library.71 Raffles Library was officially renamed the National Library on 9 December 1960, after the Raffles National Library (Change of Name) Ordinance was passed in 1960.72



Authors
Heirwin Mohd Nasir & Goh Lee Kim



References
1. “Raffles Library Re-opening Saturday,” Malaya Tribune, 28 November 1945, 2–3; “Untitled,” Malaya Tribune, 4 January 1946, 2–3. (From NewspaperSG)
2. K. K. Seet, A Place for the People (Singapore: Times Books International, 1983), 86–120. (Call no. RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
3. Seet, Place for the People, 91; Kevin Y. L. Tan, Of Whales and Dinosaurs: The Story of Singapore’s Natural History Museum (Singapore: NUS Press, 2015), 104–05. (Call no. RSING 508.0749597 TAN)
4. Tan, Of Whales and Dinosaurs, 104–05; Raffles Museum Treasures Safe,” Malaya Tribune, 23 October 1945, 2–3. (From NewspaperSG)
5. “Untitled.”
6. “Raffles Library Re-opening Saturday.”
7. “300 ‘Gift’ Books Come to Raffles Library,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 11 January 1948, 8; “Magazines for Public Auction,” Malaya Tribune, 7 July 1948, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
8. “Private Books in Raffles Library,” Straits Times, 16 September 1946, 6; “Looted Books in Raffles Library,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 15 September 1946, 8. (From NewspaperSG)
9. Seet, Place for the People, 92; Tan, Of Whales and Dinosaurs, 106.
10. “Former Malayans Return,” Malaya Tribune, 21 June 1946, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
11. “Asiatic Readers at Library Have Doubled,” Straits Times, 8 December 1946, 7; “More Asiatic Than European Readers,” Singapore Free Press, 24 April 1947, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
12. “They Want to Know,” Straits Times, 5 September 1948, 4; “‘Shocking’ Lack of Book-Lovers in Singapore,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 6 February 1949, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
13. “Donor Gives 60 Books to Raffles Library,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 9 November 1947, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
14. “More Asiatic Than European Readers,” Singapore Free Press, 24 April 1947, 2; “‘Normal’ again at Raffles Library,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 2 February 1947, 9. (From NewspaperSG)
15. “Books Awaiting Claimants at Raffles Library,” Morning Tribune, 17 November 1947, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
16. “British Council in Malaya,” Straits Times, 26 August 1947, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
17. “Raffles Library Fills Up ‘Gaps’,” Straits Times, 17 February 1948, 7; “£3,000 for Raffles Library,” Singapore Free Press, 17 February 1948, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
18. “Donor Gives 60 Books to Raffles Library”; 300 ‘Gift’ Books Come to Raffles Library.”
19. “No Expansion of Reference Library,” Malaya Tribune, 14 November 1949, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
20. The Printers and Publishers Ordinance, cap 209, Government Gazette, 2008, 647 (Microfilm NL1266); “Amendment to Printing Law,” Straits Times, 28 May 1948, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
21. Seet, Place for the People, 98.
22. “How Not to Treat Books,” Straits Times, 3 October 1948, 3; “Mr. Tweedie on Vandalism in the Library,” Straits Times, 24 November 1948, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
23. “‘Shocking’ Lack of Book-Lovers in Singapore,” Sunday Tribune (Singapore), 6 February 1848, 2; “New Librarian for Singapore,” Singapore Free Press, 4 February 1949, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
24. “Extra Libraries Must Wait,” Singapore Free Press, 18 May 1949, 7; “Give Them Books and More Books,” Singapore Free Press, 13 September 1949, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
25. “She Takes Over at Library,” Singapore Free Press, 18 July 1949, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
26. “Plan to Improve Library,” Straits Times, 17 January 1950, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
27. “Raffles Library Job Still Vacant,” Straits Times, 4 May 1950, 4; “Librarians are Hard to Get,” Straits Times, 28 December 1950, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
28. “USIS Library Opens Today,” Straits Times, 2 May 1950, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
29. “Something for Nothing,” Singapore Free Press, 9 May 1950, 4; “USIS and Raffles,” Straits Times, 16 May 1950, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
30. “5,000th Member,” Straits Times, 13 May 1950, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
31. Raffles Library and Museum, Annual Report 1950 (Singapore: Government Printers Office, 1951), 15 (Call no. RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); “Library on Sundays,” Straits Times, 3 October 1950, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
32. G. W. Davis, “How the Weekly Holidays Plan Affects You…,” Malaya Tribune, 3 July 1950, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
33. “Books,” Straits Times, 9 June 1951, 6. (From NewspaperSG)
34. “New Raffles Librarian,” Straits Times, 3 March 1951, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
35. “5-Cent Fine,” Singapore Standard, 31 May 1951, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
36. Raffles Museum and Library, Annual Report 1951 (Singapore: Government Printers Office, 1952), 1, 12, 13 (Call no. RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); Nan Hall, “Louise of the Books,” Straits Times, 15 July 1951, 4; “New Look at Raffles Library,” Sunday Standard, 15 July 1951, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
37. “Raffles Library May Set Up Suburban Branches,” Singapore Free Press, 15 June 1951, 5; “Govt to Open Branch Libraries in Singapore,” Singapore Standard, 10 September 1951, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
38. “Upper Serangoon Folk Will Soon Have Their Own Library,” Singapore Free Press, 6 October 1951, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
39. Allan Tye, “Miss Bridges Has Many Headaches as a Librarian,” Sunday Standard, 24 August 1952, 13. (From NewspaperSG)
40. Raffles Museum and Library, Annual Report 1952 (Singapore: Government Printers Office, 1953), 1, 13 (Call no. RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); “She Is New Raffles Librarian,” Singapore Free Press, 4 September 1952, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
41. Raffles Museum and Library, Annual Report 1953 (Singapore: Government Printers Office, 1955), 1 (Call no. RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); “Library Buys 300 New Books a Month,” Straits Times, 4 December 1953, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
42. “New Raffles Library Hours,” Straits Times, 16 April 1953, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
43. “Raffles Library to Keep Open Longer,” Straits Times, 18 December 1952, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
44. “New Library Hours Draw More People,” Sunday Standard, 10 May 1953, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
45. Raffles Museum and Library, Annual Report 1953, 10; “Welfare Centres,” Straits Times, 31 December 1953, 6; “Libraries for Rural Areas: First Set Up,” Singapore Free Press, 6 January 1954, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
46. Raffles Library and Musuem, Annual Report 1954 (Singapore: Government Printers Office, 1955), 12 (Call no. RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); “Branch Library Opens July 1,” Straits Times, 23 June 1954, 7; “Siglap Library,” Singapore Free Press, 25 June 1954, 2; “Now Siglap Gets Library,” Singapore Free Press, 23 June 1954, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
47. “$1 Million Free Library Will Be Built Next Year,” Straits Times, 30 July 1953, 8; “Free Public Library for Colony Soon,” Singapore Standard, 30 July 1953, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
48. Raffles Library and Museum, Annual Report 1954, 1, 12; “New Librarian Appointed,” Straits Times, 5 August 1954, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
49. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1955 (Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1957), 1–3 (Call no. RCLOS 069.095957 RAF); Seet, Place for the People, 102.
50. “‘Go Ahead’ Signal for $ Million Colony Library,” Singapore Standard, 11 September 1954, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
51. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1955, 1, 4.
52. “S’pore Is Not Library Minded,” Singapore Standard, 1 March 1955, 5; “Oriental Section for Raffles Library,” Straits Times, 1 March 1955, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
53. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1956 (Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1957), 1. (Call no. RCLOS 069.095957 RAF)
54. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1956, 4; “Library for Yio Chu Kang Villagers,” Singapore Standard, 21 November 1956, 8. (From NewspaperSG)
55. “Taking Books to the Door,” Singapore Free Press, 24 January 1957, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
56. Seet, Place for the People, 103; Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1956, 1.
57. “City’s New $2 Mil. Library,” Sunday Standard, 20 November 1955, 3; “Artist’s Sketch,” Sunday Standard, 20 November 1955, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
58. “Govt. Bears the Cost of Library Extension,” Sunday Standard, 8 January 1956, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
59. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1955, 1; “National Library for Singapore,” Singapore Standard, 1 August 1956, 2. (From NewspaperSG)
60. “Govt. Will Borrow to Speed Up Development,” Singapore Standard, 8 November 1955, 2; “City’s New $2 Mil. Library.”
61. Raffles Museum (Singapore), Annual Report 1957 (Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1958), 1–2 (Call no. RCLOS 069.095957 RAF); “Lee Lays Foundation Stone of National Library,” Singapore Standard, 17 August 1957, 4; “Start Made on Free Library,” Straits Times, 17 August 1957, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
62. “A ‘Freak’ Puts Up Cost of the Library,” Straits Times, 14 November 1957, 7. (From NewspaperSG)
63. Raffles National Library Ordinance 1957 (Ord. 31 of 1957), 1957 Supplement to the Laws of Singapore, 498–02 (Call no. RCLOS 348.5957 SIN-[HWE]); “Expansion of S’pore Library Services,” Sunday Standard, 23 March 1958, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
64. “Library Books Are Now Free,” Singapore Standard, 4 April 1958, 5; Christine Diemer, “They All Want to Read,” Sunday Standard, 1 June 1958, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
65. “Raffles Library to Get New, Less English Look Now,” Singapore Free Press, 4 July 1959, 1; “National Library to Expand Asian Sections,” Singapore Free Press, 8 September 1959, 3. (From NewspaperSG)
66. Seet, Place for the People, 114.
67. “Now a Woman Takes on Big Job in Singapore,” Straits Times, 5 May 1960, 7; “Raffles Library Gets First Local Woman as Its New Director,” Singapore Free Press, 19 September 1960, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
68. “Three Mobile Libraries for Outlying Areas,” Straits Times, 8 January 1960, 4; “New Mobile Library Services to Schools,” Singapore Free Press, 5 September 1960, 11. (From NewspaperSG)
69. “Library Building in Singapore Is Severely Criticised,” Straits Times, 4 July 1960, 7; Ian Mok-Ai, “They Gasp With Horror at This ‘Monstrous Monument’,” Singapore Free Press, 9 July 1960, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
70. “Removal of Library,” Straits Times, 4 October 1960, 4; “New Raffles Library Is Now Open,” Straits Times, 3 November 1960, 4. (From NewspaperSG)
71. “Cultural Awakening,” Straits Times, 13 November 1960, 5. (From NewspaperSG)
72. Raffles National Library (Change of Name) Ordinance 1960 (Ord. 66 of 1960), 1960 Supplement to the Laws of Singapore, 1 (Call no. RCLOS 348.5957 SIN-[HWE]); “Out Goes the Name Raffles,” Straits Times, 21 November 1960, 9; “Raffles’ Name Will Live On: Rajaratnam,” Straits Times, 1 December 1960, 7. (From NewspaperSG)



The information in this article is valid as at July 2018 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history on the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Libraries
Libraries--Singapore