The Causeway



The Causeway is a road and rail link between Singapore and Johor Bahru in Malaysia. Completed in 1923, the 1.05-kilometre Causeway cost an estimated 17 million Straits dollars and spans the Johor Straits (also known as the Tebrau Straits). At the Singapore end is the Woodlands customs, immigration and quarantine (CIQ) checkpoint, while the Sultan Iskandar CIQ stands at Bukit Chagar at the Malaysian side.1 It was estimated in 2014 that more than 130,000 vehicles cross the Woodlands checkpoint each day.2

Background and conception
From the 19th century, Malaya’s commodities such as tin, rubber, pepper and gambier were largely shipped through the port at Singapore, a British colony. These materials were trans-shipped across the Johor Straits by ferry. The early 1900s saw a rise in cross-straits traffic of both goods and passengers, and the ferry system grew increasingly congested.3 

By 1911, the demand for the ferries was so high that they had to be operated round the clock.4 The volume of traffic and high maintenance costs of the ferries led the colonial authorities to search for an alternative system.5 W. Eyre Kenny, the director of public works in the Federated Malay States (FMS), suggested the construction of a rubble causeway across the Johor Straits. This proposal was preferred over a bridge as the authorities had considered the cost of steel and the maintenance costs of a bridge prohibitive.

In 1917, the British government commissioned consultant engineer Coode, Fitzmaurice, Wilson & Mitchell to prepare plans for the causeway, which were presented to the FMS, Straits Settlements (SS) and Johor governments in 1918.7 The proposed Causeway would be 1.05 km long and 18.28 m wide, with metre-gauge railway tracks and a 7.92-metre-wide roadway.8 It would also include a lock channel that allowed the passage of small vessels, an electric lift-bridge, water pipelines and flood gates to manage the water flow of the straits.9 The total cost of the project was estimated at 17 million Straits dollars, and was shared among the FMS, Johor and SS governments.10
 
Construction
In June 1919, the colonial authorities awarded the contract for the Causeway’s construction to Topham, Jones & Railton, a London-based engineering firm.11 Construction began in August, with the project considered technically challenging for its time.12 The Causeway was also the largest engineering venture in Malaya then. Construction started at the Johor end of the straits, where the lock channel was to be located, in order to minimise disruption to existing ferry services.13 The quarry on Pulau Ubin was re-opened to supply rubble and crushed stone, and the granite supply was later boosted by stone from the Bukit Timah quarry.14 

In April 1920, a ceremony was held to mark the laying of the Causeway’s foundation stone. Laurence Nunns Guillemard, then governor of the SS, conducted the ceremony from aboard the yacht Sea Belle, which was anchored in the middle of the straits.15 The occasion also involved the Sultan of Johor, Ibrahim II, and the mufti of Johor, who poured ceremonial waters (air doa selamat, air tolak bala and air mawar) into the straits. The ceremony culminated in the emptying of the first two loads of rubble containing some 500 tons of granite into the straits.16

During an economic depression between 1920 and 1922, public criticism of the project and its costs nearly led the FMS and SS governments to halt construction. The project continued, however, and in June 1921 rubble was deposited on the Johor end, allowing the construction of the Causeway’s superstructure to begin from both the Singapore and Johor sides. From January 1923, all shipping on the straits was diverted through the lock channel.17

Opening
The straits were sealed up by June 1923 and the Causeway was opened to goods trains from 17 September.18 The goods ferry service, which by that time was running around 11,000 trips annually, and the passenger ferry service ceased operations.19 On 1 October, the Causeway was opened for public use and the first passenger train that travelled across it arrived at the Tank Road station in Singapore at 7.41 am.20 A Causeway toll, which amounted to 40 cents for first-class carriage passengers, replacing the ferry fee, was introduced.21 


Officially completed on 11 June 1924, the Causeway’s construction involved more than 2,000 workers, both locals and Europeans, over nearly five years and used almost two million cu m of stone.22 The Causeway completed Singapore’s rail connection to the mainland, and enabled the rapid rise of motor transportation between Singapore and Malaya.23

On 28 June 1924, the Causeway’s official opening ceremony was held in Johor Bahru, and a public holiday was declared there.24 During the ceremony, the Malay rulers and British officials were the first to be driven across it in a convoy of 11 motorcars, after which the roadway was opened for public use. A year later, the Johor Causeway Control Committee was formed to oversee its management and maintenance.25

Japanese Occupation and the post-war period
During the Japanese invasion of Malaya, retreating British troops set off two explosions on the Causeway on 31 January 1942. The first wrecked the lock’s lift-bridge, while the second caused a 21.33-metre gap in the Causeway. The pipelines carrying water to Singapore were also severed. The Japanese subsequently constructed a girder bridge over the gap before taking control of Singapore.26


After the return of the British, the Japanese-made girder bridge was replaced with two Bailey bridge extensions in February 1946, with the rubble of the demolished lift bridge cleared and the railway tracks re-laid. The lock channel and lift bridge were permanently closed as there was insufficient vessel traffic to justify the maintenance costs.27
 
During the Malayan Emergency (1948–60), a system of security checks was instituted for travellers using the Causeway. In 1949, it was estimated that more than 27,000 lorries utilised the Causeway each month. Within a decade, more than 30,000 people and 7,000 vehicles were estimated to cross the Causeway daily.28

Independence period
The Federation of Malaya became independent in August 1957 and the government was reported to have planned immigration controls at the Causeway.29 However, a system where travellers would require passes to cross the Causeway was replaced with a strict check of identity cards instead.30


In 1962, Tengku Abdul Rahman, then prime minister of Malaya, warned that if Singapore did not agree to the merger with Malaya, the Causeway might have to be closed as a means of keeping Malaya safe against extremists and potential hostile attacks.31 Singapore merged with the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo (Sabah) to form the Federation of Malaysia in September 1963.32

Following Singapore’s separation from Malaysia in August 1965, the Causeway became the border connector between the two countries.33 Immigration checkpoints were built on both sides, with passport controls implemented on the Singapore side from June 1967 and on the Malaysian side from September.34 

Expansions
In 1964, the Causeway was broadened. It was further widened in 1976, and again from 1989 to 1991, to accommodate the growing traffic. Customs and immigration facilities on both sides were also expanded several times, with these expansions being accommodated through land reclamation.35 After the Sultan Iskandar CIQ complex in Johor opened in December 2008, the Malaysian authorities prohibited travellers from crossing the Causeway by foot.36


Calls for replacement
Since 1996, there had been calls from Malaysian politicians for the demolition of the Causeway, starting with then prime minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad. This was later echoed by the Malaysian government for the Causeway to be replaced by a bridge in order to open the straits for shipping and for environmental reasons.37 The Gerbang Perdana consortium undertook the construction of a bridge in December 1998, as part of a project, named the Southern Integrated Gateway, costing RM$1.4–2.5 billion.38


After a series of inter-governmental negotiations, there was no agreement on the Causeway and in October 2002, Malaysia called off inter-governmental talks on the proposed bridge and later announced that it would unilaterally build the bridge.39 However, Singapore sent a diplomatic note in October 2003 stating that the Causeway could not be legally demolished without the agreement of both countries.40 Negotiations were restarted in 2004 and ended without agreement in April 2006.41 Malaysia also stopped construction of the bridge from the Johor end, citing legal complications involving the Causeway.42



Author

Alvin Chua




References
1. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Chua, L. H. (1997, October 18). A case of blackmail? The Straits Times, p. 66; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Chew, D. (1997, October 30). The legendary Johor jams. The Jakarta Post. Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Oon, D., & Yong, M. F. (1996, July 6). Surprise KL bid to replace Causeway with bridgeThe Business Times, p. 1; Neo, C. C. (2011, June 13). It’s human traffic, not the new system. Today, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 146–148. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
2. Goh, C. L. (2014, February 25). Checkpoint security: No room to err. AsiaOne. Retrieved 2017, February 23 from AsiaOne website: http://news.asiaone.com/news/singapore/checkpoint-security-no-room-err?nopaging=1
3. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 12, 19. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
4. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 50, 53. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
6. Chua, L. H. (1997, October 18). A case of blackmail? The Straits Times, p. 66; Johore Causeway. (1925, May 28). The Straits Times, p. 2; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 53. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
7. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 54, 58. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
8. Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Johore Causeway. (1925, May 28). The Straits Times, p. 2; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 58. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
9. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Johore Causeway. (1925, May 28). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 59, 61. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
10. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 57. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
11. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 62. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 57, 63. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
13. The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 58, 63. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
14. Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Johore Causeway. (1925, May 28). The Straits Times, p. 2; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 68. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
15. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
16. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 77. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
17. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 83, 89, 92. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
18. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 92, 100. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Alphonso, G., at al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 94. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
20. Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 100–101. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
21. Yap, Y. F. (2001, January 8). The wild days of the CausewayToday, p. 21; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., Lau, A., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 101. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
22. Chua, L. H. (1997, October 18). A case of blackmail? The Straits Times, p. 66; Johore Causeway. (1923, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10; Johore Causeway. (1925, May 28). The Straits Times, p. 2; The Causeway. (1924, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 58, 102, 107. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
23. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 120. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
24. Chua, L. H. (1997, October 18). A case of blackmail? The Straits Times, p. 66. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 114. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
25. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 119, 124. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
26. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 130, 132. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
27. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 132, 134. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); Ex-Chindits build Bailey Causeway. (1946, February 24). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 134. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
29. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); Big travel clamp. (1957, August 9). The Straits Times, p. 1; Causeway ban coming. (1957, September 11). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. No Causeway passes. (1957, September 23). The Straits Times, p. 1; Controls: Cabinet ‘yes’. (1966, April 21). The Straits Times, p. 1; ‘Security move…’ (1966, April 20). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
31. Tengku warns Singapore. (1962, March 26). The Straits Times, p. 1; Tengku’s deadline. (1962, March 31). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
32. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); Up goes the flag. (1963, September 17). The Straits Times, p. 1; Abisheganadan, F. (1963, September 16). Hail Malaysia! The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU); The Causeway is still open. (1965, August 15). The Straits Times, p. 1; Trade barriers off. (1965, September 29). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
35. Chua, L. H. (1997, October 18). A case of blackmail? The Straits Times, p. 66. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Alphonso, G., et al. (Eds.). (2011). The Causeway. Kuala Lumpur: National Archives of Malaysia/Singapore: National Archives of Singapore, pp. 138, 142–143. (Call no.: RSING 388.132095957 CAU)
36. Diana Othman. (2008, December 19). Johor’s border crushThe Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
37. Oon, D., & Yong, M. F. (1996, July 6). Surprise KL bid to replace Causeway with bridgeThe Business Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Peek behind the scenes. (2006, April 25). The New Straits Times; Lim, K. W. (2006, February 13). Good bridges make good neighbours. The New Straits Times; Koh, L. C. (2003, August 3). Bridge project will help curb pollution. The New Sunday Times; Firdaus Abdullah. (2003, August 2). Bridge to replace Causeway. The New Straits Times; Malaysia to replace the Causeway with new bridge. (2003, February 15). The Malay Mail; Jayasankaran, S. (1996, July 18). Kuala Lumpur – second span. Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Hong, C. (2006, April 13). Malaysia’s bridge surpriseThe Straits Times, p. 5; Cheong, S-W. (2007, May 30). KL: No need to replace Causeway any time soonThe Straits Times, p. 3; Lim, L. (2006, March 18). Causeway must go, says Najib. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Nambiar, R. (2006, February 8). 69m use Causeway every year. The New Straits Times. Retrieved 2017, February 26 from Gerbang Perdana website: http://www.gerbangperdana.com.my/portals/gp06_/newsclips/nst_news/nst_20060208b.htm; Venudran, C. (2000, November 2). Bridge project gets approval. The New Straits Times; Nambiar, R. (1999, January 15). Work begins next year on bridge to replace Causeway. The New Straits Times; Reme Ahmad. (1998, December 16). Malaysia plans to replace Singapore causeway. Reuters News. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Lim, L. (2006, March 18). Causeway must go, says Najib. The Straits Times, p. 6; Odd-shaped bridge to replace Causeway. (2003, February 18). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Hong, C. (2006, April 13). Malaysia’s bridge surpriseThe Straits Times, p. 5; Lim, L. (2006, February 4). Bridging perceptions for more clarityThe Straits Times, p. S10; Reme Ahmad. (2006, January 27). KL to go ahead with plans to build its half of bridgeThe Straits Times, p. 3; Peh, S. H. (2006, February 18). KL, S’pore set for 4th round of bridge talksThe Straits Times, p. H8; Odd-shaped bridge to replace Causeway. (2003, February 18). The Straits Times, p. 2; Toh, E. (2003, February 15). Dr M blames odd-looking bridge on ‘S’pore nostalgia’The Business Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Peek behind the scenes. (2006, April 25). The New Straits Times; Malaysia to replace the Causeway with new bridge. (2003, February 15). The Malay Mail. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
40. Lim, L. (2006, February 4). Bridging perceptions for more clarityThe Straits Times, p. 10; Reme Ahmad. (2006, January 27). KL to go ahead with plans to build its half of bridgeThe Straits Times, p. 3; Lim, L. (2005, October 18). Talks on Causeway bridge ongoing. The Straits Times, p. 116; Hong, C. (2006, April 13). Malaysia’s bridge surpriseThe Straits Times, p. 5; Peh, S. H. (2006, February 18). KL, S’pore set for 4th round of bridge talksThe Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Peek behind the scenes. (2006, April 25). The New Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

41. Peek behind the scenes. (2006, April 25). The New Straits Times; Malaysia axes plan to build bridge to Singapore. (2006, April 12). Reuters News. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Lim, L. (2006, February 4). Bridging perceptions for more clarityThe Straits Times, p. 10; Hong, C. (2006, April 13). Malaysia’s bridge surpriseThe Straits Times, p. 5; Cheong, S-W. (2007, May 30). KL: No need to replace Causeway any time soonThe Straits Times, p. 3; Lim, L. (2006, March 18). Causeway must go, says Najib. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
42. Ramani, V. (2006, April 13). Bridge project dies unbornToday, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Radzuan Halim. (2006, April 24). A link that divides. The Edge Financial Daily; ‘Plan wouldn’t have worked anyway’. (2006, April 14). The New Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/




The information in this article is valid as at 2009 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.
 

Subject
Architecture
Transportation
Transportation--Singapore
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Services>>Transportation and logistics
Causeways--Singapore
Arts>>Architecture>>Architectural structure
Commerce and Industry>>Transportation
Architecture and Landscape>>Architectural Styles