Sampan



Sampan, known as kolek in Malay, is a small wooden boat, skiff or canoe-like coastal craft that is typically propelled by oars.1 Also known as Chinese shoe-boats, it is a common native craft that sometimes comes with a sail, used for fishing and short range transportation.2 The word sampan had originated from the Chinese word sanpan, meaning “boat” (san means “three” and pan means “board”). It is also spelt champana, champan, sampane, siampan, sampaan and sampang.3 Used all over Asia, the sampan was once seen in great numbers at the Singapore River until 1983.4 Only a few remain currently; these can be found in the coastal areas of mainland Singapore and the surrounding islands.5

History
The earliest of this type of boats came from China, and the Chinese sampan had been mentioned in travel writings from the West in as early as the 17th century.6 While the word and name has been applied by Europeans to any small boat of Chinese pattern in the China seas, there are many types of sampans – of different sizes and design variations – in Asia.7


In Singapore, sampans were used along rivers and coastal areas for fishing and short range transportation.8 Although primitive, they were for a time virtually the sole means of transporting passengers and crew between ships at anchorages and the various landing jetties.9 Sampans were widely used in the heyday of economic activity at the Singapore River until September 1983, when the river was cleared as part of the river clean-up campaign.10

Description
A native craft, sampans are keelless boats generally made of at least three planks or pine boards, which gave it the Chinese name, sanpan.11 Sampan also became an official English and Malay word meaning “small boat”. Sampans are usually about 8 ft long or less, while the large versions are about 20 to 23 ft long. The largest sampans, which are about 30 ft long, are used as cargo carriers or trading vessels.12 A small-sized craft has a capacity of up to three people; it was also used to carry small amounts of goods in the past, as well as hawking snacks and sundry items at the waterfront.13 Usually propelled by a short, single-bladed or double-bladed paddle, the more modern sampans are outboard motor powered.14


River transport
The Singapore River had divided Singapore into the commercial and government sectors before bridges were built. At the time, the two sectors were linked by dhonis, a form of row-boats or sampans operated by Indians.15

Sampans were also operated by Chinese to ferry passengers from locations along the river to the seafront, in addition to providing rides across the river.16 For many years, a Punjabi girl and her brother had ferried passengers between the Havelock Road river bank and Robertson Quay for a few cents.17

In the early days before bridges were built, each river crossing cost a duit or quarter-cent.18

Recent developments
Sampans can still be seen along the coastal areas of mainland Singapore and the surrounding islands today. It is now used mostly for fishing and pleasure rides.19


Variant names
Champana, champan, sampane, siampan, sampaan, and sampang.20
Tam-ban
(Annamite word where tam means “three”; Annam in Indo-China was formerly a kingdom from the third century to 1428).21

Kolek (Malay).22



Author

Vernon Cornelius-Takahama




References
1.
Awang Sudjai Hairul, & Yusoff Khan (Eds.). (1977). Sampan. In Kamus Lengkap. Petaling Jaya: Pustaka Zaman, p. 954. (Call no.: Malay RCLOS 499.230321 KAM-[DIC]); Berry, L. (1982). Singapore’s river: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BER-[HIS])
2. Singapore. Oral History Dept. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 67. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN); Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 121. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB-[GBH])
3.
Oxford University Press. (2016). Sampan. Retrieved 2016, December 30 from Oxford English Dictionary website: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/170410?rskey=d2wRVn&result=1#eid
4.
Singapore. Oral History Dept. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
5.
National Heritage Board. (2017, April 10). Chinese sampans. Retrieved 2017, August 17 from Roots website: https://roots.sg/Roots/learn/collections/listing/1081287
6.
National Heritage Board. (2017, April 10). Chinese sampans. Retrieved 2017, August 17 from Roots website: https://roots.sg/Roots/learn/collections/listing/1081287
7.
Oxford University Press. (2016). Sampan. Retrieved 2016, December 30 from Oxford English Dictionary website: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/170410?rskey=d2wRVn&result=1#eid; Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 121. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB-[GBH])
8.
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 121. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB -[GBH])
9.
Port of Singapore Authority. (1984). Singapore: Portrait of a port: A pictorial history of the port and harbour of Singapore 1819–1984. Singapore: MPH Magazines, p. 42. (Call no.: RSING 779.93871095957 SIN)
10.
Singapore. Oral History Dept. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 66–67. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
11.
Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS])
12.
Awang Sudjai Hairul, & Yusoff Khan. (Eds.). (1977). Sampan. In Kamus Lengkap. Petaling Jaya: Pustaka Zaman, p. 954. (Call no.: Malay RCLOS 499.230321 KAM-[DIC]); Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 123, 127. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB-[GBH])
13.
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 121. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB-[GBH]); Singapore. Oral History Dept. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 80. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
14.
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951). A note on the small boats of the Rhio and Lingga archipelagos. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 123–124. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.829 GIB-[GBH])
15.
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1952). Tongkang and lighter matters. Singapore: Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 81. (Call no.: RCLOS 623.8245 GIB); National Heritage Board. (2016, October 28). Singapore River walk, p. 8. Retrieved 2016, December 29 from Roots website: https://roots.sg/visit/trails/singapore-river-walk
16.
Singapore. Oral History Dept. (1986). Singapore lifeline: The river and its people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 80. (Call no.: RSING 779.995957 SIN)
17.
Berry, L. (1982). Singapore’s river: A living legacy. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING 959.57.19 BER-[HIS])
18.
Hon, J. (1990). Tidal fortunes: A story of change: The Singapore River and Kallang Basin. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HON-[HIS])
19.
National Heritage Board. (2017, April 10). Chinese sampans. Retrieved 2017, August 17 from Roots website: https://roots.sg/Roots/learn/collections/listing/1081287
20.
Oxford University Press. (2016). Sampan. Retrieved 2016, December 30 from Oxford English Dictionary website: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/170410?rskey=d2wRVn&result=1#eid
21.
Oxford University Press. (2016). Sampan. Retrieved 2016, December 30 from Oxford English Dictionary website: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/170410?rskey=d2wRVn&result=1#eid; Collins. (2016). Annam. Retrieved 2016, December 30 from Collins website: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/annam
22.
Jayapal, M. (1992). Old Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 JAY-[HIS])



The information in this article is valid as at 2000 and correct as far as we can ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Commerce and Industry>>Transportation
Wooden boats--Singapore
Boats and boating--Singapore
Skiffs--Singapore
Storage and moving trade--Singapore
Transportation
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Services>>Transportation and logistics