Eu Tong Sen



Eu Tong Sen (b. 23 July 1877, Penang, Malaya1–d. 11 May 1941, Hong Kong2) was a businessman and philanthropist who established his fortune in Malaya, and subsequently Hong Kong and southern China. The foundation of his business empire was established through tin mining and rubber plantations. These later expanded to cover a wide number of other business activities, but today he is most famously known for the Eu Yan Sang chain of medicinal shops. As an influential member and leader of his community, Eu was engaged in many social issues, donating to causes such as education and being a leader of the Anti-Opium Movement during the early 1900s.Eu's father, Eu Kong (also known as Eu Kwong Pai or Eu Kong Pui),3 left his hometown Foshan, China, for Penang in 1873, and set up textile dyeing and bakery businesses.4 However, both businesses failed, and Eu Kong took on a job collecting debts for a grocery shop.5 In 1877, Eu Kong's wife Leong Lay Yong gave birth to his first son, Tong Sen, and the family subsequently moved to Gopeng in Perak.6 

In Gopeng, Eu Kong set up a provision shop and later the Yan Sang Medicine Shop (later renamed Eu Yan Sang) selling traditional Chinese medicine.7 In 1882, he obtained a general farm concession – a license to collect taxes on opium, gambling, alcohol and pawnbroking – in the Batang Padang district.8 The tax farm revenues also enabled him to set up a number of tin mines and expand the Yan Sang chain of shops to provide groceries, medicine as well as remittance and postal services to his coolies.9

In 1881, at the age of four, Eu Tong Sen was sent to Foshan, his father’s hometown in China, for his education. The social conditions in China at the time would prove formative in shaping Eu's later worldview. Eu also developed a life-long love of Cantonese opera and was influenced by his grandfather's belief in feng shui (Chinese geomancy).10 In 1890, Eu Kong passed away at the age of 37, likely from smallpox, and Tong Sen survived his own bout of the disease later that year.11


Subsequently, Eu’s stepmother Mun Woon Chang (also known as Man Woon Chang),12 his father's second wife and an influential Peranakan businesswoman,13 made arrangements for him to return to Malaya in March 1892 and obtain a Western education. Mun intended to groom Eu to take over his father's businesses, ahead of the claims of his uncles Kong De and Kong Jin.14 In 1893, however, while on a visit to the family home in China, Mun was poisoned at a family dinner and died. The 16-year old Eu returned to Malaya with his adoptive sister Zu Yi.15

Back in Penang, Scottish lawyer A. G. Mackie, the executor of Eu Kong's will, arranged for Eu to study under private tutor F. W. Harley16 and live with Penang Free School schoolmaster R. Butler, who was also one of Eu Kong’s business partners.17 Eu also attended St Xavier’s Institution before leaving for Ipoh in 1895 to continue his studies at the Anglo-Chinese School.18 He became fluent in English and developed an appreciation for European culture, later manifested in his taste for horse racing, cars and dog rearing as well as elements of European architecture in the mansions he built.19

Business career
Upon turning 21 in 1898, Eu inherited his father’s businesses.20 However, at this time the colonial government had begun phasing out the practice of tax farming, which had proven lucrative and instrumental to the foundation of the Eu family’s fortunes.21 The Eu family's tin mines had also been expended, while his uncles Kong De and Kong Jin had depleted the cash and stock reserves of the Yan Sang business.22

Eu then spent three years from 1898 to 1900 prospecting for new tin mines in the Kinta Valley in Perak. He was accompanied on the daily prospecting trips by his maternal uncle Tong How, starting at 5 am each morning and travelling through the jungle on elephant back before returning to work at the Yan Sang shop before daybreak. Eu was unable to find new sources of tin until his third year of prospecting, relying on financial aid from his friends.23

Following his first discovery of tin in 1900, Eu's successes accumulated quickly and by 1908, he owned a total of 11 mines – eight in Perak, two in Selangor and one in Negri Sembilan.24 His fortunes were also boosted with the increase in tin prices, which had almost doubled since 1896.25 Each mine brought in revenues of up to a million dollars annually, and his tin mining workforce numbered 12,000 in 1908.26 

Eu consolidated his tin mining business by becoming one of the first Chinese tin bosses to invest in Western machinery and techniques like hydraulic mining.27 To capitalise on opportunities associated with tin mining, he set up a foundry for mining equipment as well as the Eastern Smelting Company to compete with the dominant tin smelter of the time, the European-owned Straits Trading.28

The introduction of the bucket dredge in 1902, however, brought on a crisis for Eu’s tin business. Dredges increased the productivity of tin mines several fold but as they were capital-intensive, Chinese miners (generally family-owned companies) were unable to adopt this technology successfully. As a result, European mining companies (joint-stock entities with more resources) began to make inroads into the industry.29 In response to their rising dominance, Eu began to diversify his business, expanding into rubber plantations in the late 1900s. His investments in rubber provided him with a windfall during the rubber boom, making him one of the richest men in Malaya at that time.30 

In the following years, Eu pursued a business strategy of diversification. By 1920, his business assets in Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong included a long list of enterprises: tin mining, smelting, metalworking (foundries), rubber, property development, Chinese medicine, remittances31 and banking, which he entered in 1920 by setting up Lee Wah Bank in Singapore. A joint venture with a Cantonese merchant, it was made viable by the retreat of European financiers from the region during World War I (1914–1918).32 Eu held the largest shareholding in the bank and was its first chairman.33 

Ultimately, Eu’s active diversification enabled him to weather the Great Depression that struck in 1929 and bankrupted many of his fellow towkays (“business owners” in the Hokkien dialect). Cutting down on tin and rubber production, for which demand had fallen drastically, Eu was able to fall back on other businesses that were less affected.34 


In contrast to the trade in Malayan commodities such as tin and rubber, Eu's remittance business had grown exponentially from a volume of HK$33,000 in 1914 to over HK$3 million in 1935. Starting with a remittance office opened in Ipoh in 1906 and dealing with agents in Hong Kong and Canton (now known as Guangzhou), Eu’s network soon spanned Malaya, Singapore, Hong Kong and Southern China. The remittance business provided him with a source of liquid cash flow, and facilitated his investments in property and other businesses. By the late 1920s, remittances between Southeast Asia and China had become Eu’s most profitable business.35 

To manage the remittance business more effectively, Eu rebased himself in Hong Kong in 1930.36 His other reasons for making the move included his poor health and the fact that his stance of political neutrality in Malaya had made him a number of enemies, leading to the threat of a boycott of Eu Yan Sang in 1928.37 In Hong Kong, Eu prepared to retire and left most business matters to his senior managers and eldest son, Eu Keng Chee, whom he had designated as his heir.38

Political and social activities, personal life
Like other leading businessmen at the time, Eu took up many community leadership roles. He served in civic committees such as the Kinta Sanitary Board, which was in charge of town planning and sanitation issues,39 and the Perak Po Leung Kuk (Society for the Protection of Women and Children), among others. Eu also contributed financially to causes in China, including the Royalist reform movement of Kang You Wei, disaster relief efforts, children's welfare and anti-Japanese resistance during the Sino-Japanese war.40


Eu also championed a variety of social causes by carrying out philanthropic work, while seeking to eradicate the social ills of the day: gambling, prostitution and most notably, opium addiction. As vice-president of the Perak Anti-Opium Society, Eu participated in the 1906 Anti-Opium Campaign by distributing anti-opium literature and handing out a free remedy for opium addicts – “Selangor cure” – through his Eu Yan Seng medicinal shops.41 

In the early 1900s, Eu had shareholdings in opium farms in Singapore and Penang. He justified these shareholdings by implying that he felt obliged, as a leading towkay, to tender for the farms so as not to appear disloyal to the colonial government. Later writers have also reasoned that Eu and his fellow anti-opium towkays, who were also opium farm shareholders, sought to control the trade to eventually diminish it, and raised the price of opium to keep it out of reach of the poorer sections of society.42

In 1909, Eu was appointed to the Legislative Council (also known as the Federal Council) of the Federated Malay States as an unofficial member representing Chinese interests.43 Utilising his position, Eu continued to lobby against gambling and opium consumption.44 

During World War I, Eu made monetary donations toward the Allied war effort, which included the cost of a fighter aircraft45 and a tank. The tank that was purchased with his donation was painted with two “Chinese eyes” – an allusion to the eyes painted on Chinese ships – as a mark of gratitude for the contribution. Subsequently, the entire 4th Battalion of the Royal Tank Regiment (since merged with the 1st Battalion) adopted the markings.46

In 1910, Eu moved from Perak to Singapore with his mother, who had joined him in Malaya. The move came about through a combination of business interests as well as the fear of being harassed by his cousin and secret society members of the Tong Meng Hui political organisation. Eu had refused to provide financial support to the organisation.47 He later moved to Hong Kong in 1930.

For his work on the Legislative Council, Eu was conferred the Order of the British Empire (OBE).48 In 1919, Wayang Street in Singapore's Chinatown was renamed Eu Tong Sen Street after Eu acquired two Chinese opera theatres there and rebuilt the street.49

Construction projects
Eu was a prolific developer who was responsible for the construction of many grand buildings and villas in Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong. In Hong Kong alone, he had three great mansions – the Gothic-style Eucliff and Euston, and the Austrian-style Sirmio.50 In Singapore, the Eu Villa was constructed in 1914 at the cost of a million dollars to house his large extended family.51 Other prominent buildings in Singapore include the Great Southern Hotel (also known as Nam Tin Hotel) (1927),52 Eu Court (1920s)53 and the Majestic Theatre (1927), a Cantonese opera house.54 


Since 2003, the Majestic Theatre has been converted into a shopping centre55 whereas Great Southern Hotel became the Yue Hwa Chinese Products store in 1996.56 In 1992, Eu Court was demolished for a road widening scheme,57 while Eu Villa was sold by the family in 197358 and demolished in 1981.59

A popular legend has it that Eu shared a birthday with the Chinese patron deity of construction, Lo Pan, and was advised by both his grandfather and a fortune teller that he could prolong his life through monumental building projects.60 

Death and dissolution of business empire
,

Eu died of heart failure on 11 May 1941 and was buried at his Sirmio manor in Tai Po, Hong Kong.61 At the time of his death, Eu’s Malayan assets were valued at 50 million Straits dollars, of which the government claimed 60 percent as taxes.62 The rest of his fortune was divided into 13 equal shares and apportioned among his sons.63 

However, the fragmented shares meant that no single son could take effective control and as the majority had already established their own careers, they decided to liquidate their assets and distribute the cash. As a result, the Eu family business empire disintegrated and only the medicinal business of Eu Yan Sang survived in family hands, although the family did run Lee Wah Bank until it merged with the United Overseas Bank in 1973.64

Family
At the age of 38, Eu had one wife, four daughters and a single son. Worried for the family lineage, his mother introduced more women into his life and in the following year, he had two more sons by two different wives. In total, Eu had 13 sons and 11 daughters by 11 wives.65 



Author

Alex Chow



References
1. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
2. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 114. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
3. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA); Lian, K. F., & Koh, K. W. (2004, October). Chinese enterprise in colonial Malaya: The case of Eu Tong Sen. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(3), 422. (Call no.: RSING 959.005 JSA)
4. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 9. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
5. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
6. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
7. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
8. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
9. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
10. Chung, P. Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 612. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
11. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 16. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
12. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA); Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 587. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
13. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
14. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
15. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
16. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA); Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 595. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
17. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA); Chung, P. Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 613. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
18. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 22. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
19. Chung, P. Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 613. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
20. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 595. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
21. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 595. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
22. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
23. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
24. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
25. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
26. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, pp. 26, 28. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
27. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 596. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
28. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 44-45. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
29. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 598. (Call no.RSEA
30. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 598–600. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
31. Lian, K. F., & Koh, K. W. (2004, October). Chinese enterprise in colonial Malaya: The case of Eu Tong Sen. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(3), 425–426. (Call no.: RSING 959.005 JSA)
32. Chung, P. Y. (2002, July). Surviving economic crises in Southeast Asia and southern China: The history of the Eu Yan Sang business conglomerates in Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 36(3), 601–602. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
33. Chung, P. Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 614. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
34. Lian, K. F., & Koh, K. W. (2004, October). Chinese enterprise in colonial Malaya: The case of Eu Tong Sen. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(3), 429. (Call no.: RSING 959.005 JSA)
35. Lian, K. F., & Koh, K. W. (2004, October). Chinese enterprise in colonial Malaya: The case of Eu Tong Sen. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(3), 426-429. (Call no.: RSING 959.005 JSA)
36. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 105. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
37. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 108. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
38. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
39. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 34. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
40. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 75-76. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
41. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 59-60. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
42. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 61-64. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
43. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
44. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
45. Towkay’s gift aeroplane. (1915, June 26). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 93. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
47. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 67-76. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
48. Eu Tong Sen, Malayan multi-millionaire, dies in Hong Kong. (1941, May 12). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Savage, V. R., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). Singapore street names: A study of toponymics. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, p. 119–120. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA])
50. Chung, P. Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 616. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
51. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 95. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA); Mr. Eu Tong Sen's million dollar villa. (1934, September 9). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA).
53. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 153. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
54. Teo, J. (2007, August 2). For sale: The Majestic asking price: $43mThe Straits Times, p. 44, Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Loh, H. Y. (2003, January 18). Majestic Theatre’s backThe Straits Times, p. L2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Lam, J. (1996, October 10). HK-based Yue Hwa opens $100m department storeThe Business Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. UIC poised to spend $52m on development of Eu Court site. (1994, April 7). The Straits Times, p. 37. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
58. Hwang, T. F. (1973, February 16). Eu Tong Sen mansion is sold for $8.19 millionThe Straits Times, p. 17. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
59. Keys, P. (1982, November 27). Hill of varied delightsThe Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
60. Chung, P.Y. (2005, July). The transformation of an overseas Chinese family: Three generations of the Eu Tong Sen family, 1882–1941. Modern Asian Studies, 39(3), 619. (Call no.: RSEA 950 MAS)
61. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 114. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
62. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 118. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
63. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 116. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
64. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 127–129. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)
65. Sharp, I. (2009). Path of the righteous crane: The life and legacy of Eu Tong Sen. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 95. (Call no.: RSING 338.7616151092 SHA)



The information in this article is valid as at 15 September 2014 and correct as far as we can ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Businessmen--Singapore--Biography
Eu Tong Sen, 1877-1941
Philanthropists--Singapore--Biography
Personalities>>Biographies>>Community leaders
Personalities
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Healthcare and medicine
Community leaders
People and communities>>Social groups and communities