K. M. Byrne



Kenneth Michael Byrne (b. 13 May 1913, Singapore–d. 14 May 1990, Singapore), or K. M. Byrne, was Singapore’s first minister for labour and law. He was one of nine ministers who made up the first cabinet of the People’s Action Party (PAP) government, which was also the first government of the self-governing state of Singapore formed on 5 June 1959. Under Byrne’s leadership, the Industrial Relations Ordinance was enacted and the Industrial Arbitration Court established in 1960 to provide an alternative to industrial action for resolving labour disputes. He also introduced the Women’s Charter in 1961 to protect and advance the rights of women and girls in Singapore. Byrne retired from politics after he was defeated in the 1963 general election, but he continued to serve in various public offices until 1978. Thereafter, he returned to the legal profession by establishing his own private firm and continued practising law until shortly before his death in 1990.

Early life and education
Early years
Byrne, known as Kenny by his friends, was born in Singapore on 13 May 1913 to John and Lizzy Byrne. His parents were both born in Singapore and he was the second of 11 boys in his family.1

Byrne was first educated at St Xavier’s School in Penang where his father was working then. He returned to Singapore with his family at the end of 1926, following which he studied at St Joseph’s Institution (SJI).2

A serious and hardworking student, Byrne topped his SJI cohort for the School Certificate Examinations in 1929 and was awarded the See Ewe Boon Scholarship. He subsequently joined the Queen’s Scholarship class at Raffles Institution, but was unsuccessful at attaining that scholarship.3

Raffles College
In 1933, Byrne entered Raffles College to pursue a diploma in arts. He was awarded for his good academic performance with a scholarship in his second and third years in college. An avid reader with an interest in current affairs, Byrne was also a prolific contributor to the Raffles College magazine. He became the magazine’s sub-editor in 1933 and then the editor the following year. Byrne also played an active role in the college’s student union and was elected its president in 1935. By 1936, Byrne had graduated with first-class honours and was top of his class.4

Career in colonial civil service
Byrne joined the colonial civil service after graduating from Raffles College. He then underwent a series of courses for civil servants that were also held at the college.5 For about 10 years thereafter, including during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942–45), Byrne served in the lower courts as magistrate and assistant district judge.6

Byrne was awarded a Queen’s Fellowship in 1941 to pursue a university education in Great Britain. However, as a result of World War II, Byrne only left for England in August 1947 to study law at Christ Church College in Oxford University. After attaining a Bachelor of Arts degree (converted to Master of Arts after three years) and Bachelor of Civil Law at Oxford, Byrne was called to the Bar and qualified as a barrister at Middle Temple, London, in 1950. He returned to Singapore that same year.7

Byrne rejoined the colonial civil service following his return to Singapore. He was appointed clerk of the Legislative Council and subsequently promoted to assistant secretary of the establishments division. In 1953, he was transferred to the marine department. Then on 6 March 1957, he became the permanent secretary for the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. He was one of nine local men appointed to key civil service positions at the time, which was a first step in the British government’s Malayanisation policy.8

Byrne left the colonial civil service on 1 September 1958 to contest the 1959 general election.9

Civil service union involvement
While in England, Byrne joined the Malayan Forum, an anticolonial group that pursued the idea of an independent Malaya. It was probably through this platform that Byrne first met Lee Kuan Yew, who would become Singapore’s first prime minister, through his colleague in the colonial civil service, Goh Keng Swee.10

After returning to Singapore from England, Byrne became actively involved in the civil service union movement. He helped to establish the Singapore Senior Officers’ Association (SOA) in early 1952 and was elected its secretary.11

Byrne fought for the local civil servants against discriminatory policies that favoured expatriate British staff in terms of salaries, benefits and promotions.12 In mid-1952, the Singapore Federation of Unions of Government Employees – formed in 1950 by some 60 unionists to represent nine public service unions – joined the SOA to form the Council of Action to fight for the interests of local public employees.13 The council was initiated by Byrne and Goh, who was then a statistician and economist at the social welfare department. Byrne was elected head of the council, which was subsequently renamed the Council of Joint Action (CJA).14

In 1952, the CJA launched a campaign against a new family allowance given to expatriates but not local civil servants. As leader of the government unions, Byrne acted as the chief spokesman in negotiations with the government.15 During the long-drawn campaign, Byrne was charged with gross insubordination for deriding the incompetence of his expatriate colleagues.16 Byrne was later found not guilty of gross insubordination and got off with a reprimand.17 The pay and allowance revisions proposed by the CJA for civil servants were also eventually adopted by the British government.18

With his active participation in the civil service union movement, Byrne was subsequently drawn into local politics, which eventually led to his involvement in the establishment of the PAP.19

Political career
PAP founding member
Before the PAP was established, Byrne was part of a group that met regularly at Lee’s home on Oxley Road to discuss its formation.20 Byrne was a key figure who worked behind the scenes to muster support for the party from the unions representing civil servants.21

When the PAP was officially inaugurated on 21 November 1954 at the Victoria Memorial Hall, Byrne and Goh attended the event as part of the audience. As both men were still senior civil servants then, they were prohibited from taking an active part in politics.22

After Byrne left his civil service position in September 1958, he practised as an advocate and solicitor of the Supreme Court in the chambers of Lee and Lee, a law firm established by Lee, his wife Kwa Geok Choo and his brother Lee Kim Yew.23 He contested the Crawford constituency as a PAP candidate in the May 1959 general election and won with 66 percent of the votes.24

Cabinet positions
When the PAP formed the first government of the self-governing state of Singapore on 5 June 1959, Byrne was appointed the minister for labour and law.25 One of the nine men who made up the first PAP government cabinet, he was the oldest at age 46.26

On 23 September 1961, Byrne relinquished the labour portfolio and was appointed the minister for health and law.27

Key contributions
Presiding over a turbulent time for labour relations in Singapore, one of first things Byrne did as the minister for labour and law was to announce that the PAP government was on the workers’ side. To show his commitment, Byrne shifted his office from the second to the ground floor so as to be near to the people. Large signboards stating that union officials could have direct access to him were also prominently displayed outside the ministry building.28

Byrne then introduced a series of legislations to improve workers’ welfare and unify the fragmented union movement,29 most notably the Industrial Relations Ordinance, which came into force in 1960. The ordinance provided an alternative to industrial action for the resolution of labour disputes through the Industrial Arbitration Court, which was established on 15 September 1960 with the aim to provide fair arbitration between unions and employers.30 The Trade Unions Act was also amended to provide the registrar with the discretion to refuse registration of any union.31 In 1978, Byrne was conferred the Friend of Labour Medal, a National Trades Union Congress May Day award, in recognition of his contributions to the labour movement in Singapore.32

Besides labour laws, Byrne also introduced the Women’s Charter, a legislation passed in 1961 to protect and advance the rights of women and girls in Singapore. A milestone for women’s rights in Singapore, the charter provided for compulsory registration of all marriages and required non-Muslim marriages to be monogamous. The charter also gave women in Singapore the right to purchase properties and operate businesses using their maiden names.33

The Chew Swee Kee affair
In 1959, Byrne was strongly criticised by the authorities for his role in the Chew Swee Kee affair.34 In 1957, Chew, then minister for education and a member of the Singapore People’s Alliance, received $300,000 on behalf of his party. This was followed by another $500,000 he received in 1958, which was also for political purposes.35

On 6 September 1958, Byrne received a telephone call from someone working in the income tax department giving him secret information on Chew’s income tax file.36 Byrne told Lee about the mysterious telephone call several days later.37

In 1959, a commission of inquiry was set up after the PAP leaders made allegations that money from the United States had been transferred into Chew’s account to fund his political activities against his opponents.38 When reporting the commission’s findings, the commissioner criticised Byrne for not reporting this serious leakage of secret information to the proper authorities immediately after receiving the telephone call. Although Byrne had resigned from the colonial civil service, it was his duty to report the call as he was officially still a civil servant at the time – he was technically on leave and the effective date of his retirement from the civil service was in March 1959. Consequently, investigations into the matter were delayed and the identity of Byrne’s informant could not be traced. The commission of inquiry held Byrne responsible for this outcome.39

Retirement from politics
Byrne contested the Crawford constituency again in the 1963 general election and lost by 193 votes to S. T. Bani of the Barisan Sosialis.40 Byrne retired from politics after his electoral defeat.41 However, he remained in public service and was appointed as chairman of the Singapore Tourist Promotion Board (now Singapore Tourism Board) and the Central Provident Fund Board, both in 1964.42

In 1966, Byrne was appointed Singapore’s first high commissioner to New Zealand, a position he served in until 1972. The following year, he became the high commissioner to India and also served concurrently as the ambassador to Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal and Sri Lanka until 1977.43

Byrne left the diplomatic service in 1978 and went into private practice by establishing his own law firm. He continued to practise law until shortly before his death in 1990.44

Family and death
Byrne’s wife Elaine Margaret Marcus was a sister of one of his classmates in SJI. They married at the Church of the Holy Family in Katong on 5 August 1939.45 He had a son, Walter James, and a daughter, Melanie Mary.46

Byrne died on 14 May 1990, a day after his 77th birthday. He had been in good health until he had a fall on 11 May and was admitted to the Singapore General Hospital. He suffered a heart attack on 13 May and died in hospital the following day.47

Key official appointments
6 Mar 1957–31 Aug 1958: Permanent secretary, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.48
1959–1963: Member of parliament for Crawford constituency.
5 Jun 1959–22 Sep 1961: Minister for labour and law.
23 Sep 1961–1963: Minister for health and law.
1964–1966: Chairman of Central Provident Fund Board.
1964–1966: Chairman of Singapore Tourist Promotion Board.
1966–1972: High commissioner to New Zealand.
1973–1977: High commissioner to India and ambassador to Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal and Sri Lanka.



Author

Cheryl Sim



References
1. Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
2. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
3. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 71–72. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
4. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 72. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Raffles College results. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Raffles College results. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
6. S. S. appointments. (1937, December 4). The Straits Times, p. 10; Four courts open. (1945, September 23). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
7. Scholars anxious to go abroad. (1946, March 13). The Straits Times, p. 4; Colony men for U. K. (1948, March 20). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 73–75. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Local men take over 9 top jobs. (1957, March 6). The Straits Times, p. 1; Lam &Top govt. men may fight poll for PAP. (1958, July 3). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Colony of Singapore. Government gazette. (1957, March 6). (G.N. 24, N.N. 566). Singapore: [s.n.], p. 235. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 SGG)
9. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 75, 78. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Top govt. men may fight poll for PAP. (1958, July 3). The Straits Times, p. 1; Mr. Byrne tells of a phone call on a September morning. (1959, April 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 74. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 52. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR).
11. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29; For senior officers. (1952, January 25). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Yap, S., Lim, R., & Leong, W. K. (2010). Men in white: The untold story of Singapore’s ruling political party. Singapore: Straits Times Press, pp. 32–33. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 YAP).
13. Lam &Tan, K. Y. L. (2012). Goh Keng Swee in politics and parliament. In E. Chew, & C. G. Kwa (Eds.), Goh Keng Swee: A legacy of public service (pp. 73–90). Singapore: World Scientific; Hackensack, NJ: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 GOH-[HIS])
14. Yap, S., Lim, R., & Leong, W. K. (2010). Men in white: The untold story of Singapore’s ruling political party. Singapore: Straits Times Press, p. 33. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 YAP); Ng, I. (2010). The Singapore lion: A biography of S. Rajaratnam. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 327.59570092 NG); Tan, K. Y. L. (2012). Goh Keng Swee in politics and parliament. In E. Chew, & C. G. Kwa (Eds.), Goh Keng Swee: A legacy of public service (pp. 73–90). Singapore: World Scientific; Hackensack, NJ: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 GOH-[HIS])
15. Yap, S., Lim, R., & Leong, W. K. (2010). Men in white: The untold story of Singapore’s ruling political party. Singapore: Straits Times Press, p. 33. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 YAP); Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 75–76. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
16. Ng, I. (2010). The Singapore lion: A biography of S. Rajaratnam. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 327.59570092 NG)
17. Byrne: A move by counsel. (1953, July 24). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 76. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Yap, S., Lim, R., & Leong, W. K. (2010). Men in white: The untold story of Singapore’s ruling political party. Singapore: Straits Times Press, p. 33. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 YAP)
19. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
20. Lee, K. Y. (1980, January 7). We were riding a tiger and we knew it. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Lee, K. Y. (1998). The Singapore story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions: Straits Times Press, p. 160. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 LEE-[HIS])
21. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 77. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Lee, K. Y. (1980, January 7). We were riding a tiger and we knew it. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 77. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Lee, K. Y. (1980, January 7). We were riding a tiger and we knew it. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Mr. Byrne tells of a phone call on a September morning. (1959, April 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 85. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Lee & Lee. (2016). The firm. Retrieved from Lee & Lee website: http://www.leenlee.com.sg/our-people/the-firm/
24. Government of Singapore. (2015, November 2). 1959 parliamentary election results. Retrieved from Elections Department Singapore website: http://www.eld.gov.sg/elections_past_parliamentary1959.html; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
25. Premier: We need the help of all in S’pore. (1959, June 6). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; State of Singapore. Government gazette. (1959, June 6). (G.N. 4, N.N. 59). Singapore: [s.n.], p. 19. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 SGG)
26. Chok Tong pays respects to veteran minister. (1990, May 16). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Sam, J. (1961, September 24). A pledge to PAP. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; State of Singapore. Government gazette. (1961, November 17). (G.N. 77, N.N. 2626). Singapore: [s.n.], p. 1570. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 SGG)
28. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Byrne keeps a pledge. (1959, June 30). The Singapore Free Press, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Chok Tong pays respects to veteran minister. (1990, May 16). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Government of Singapore. (2015, March 10). History. Retrieved from Industrial Arbitration Court website: http://www.iac.gov.sg/about-iac/history; National Library Board Singapore. (2014). Industrial Relations Ordinance (1960) takes effect. Retrieved from HistorySG.
31. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 79–80. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
32. Byrne among seven to get NTUC May Day award. (1978, April 30). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations. (n.d.). Women’s Charter. Retrieved from Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations website: http://www.scwo.org.sg/index.php/womens-charter; Our first cabinet: Where are they now? (1984, November 18). The Straits Times, p. 23; Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. Judge flays Byrne. (1959, May 27). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 77. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
35. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 77–78. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Lee, K. Y. (1998). The Singapore story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions: Straits Times Press, p. 294. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 LEE-[HIS])
36. Byrne names source: Man who called himself Stone told me about it. (1959, April 8). The Straits Times, p. 1; Mr. Byrne tells of a phone call on a September morning. (1959, April 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
37. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
38. Commissioner: That $500,000 account was political gift. (1959, May 27). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
39. Judge flays Byrne. (1959, May 27). The Straits Times, p. 1; Mr. Byrne tells of a phone call on a September morning. (1959, April 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
40. Government of Singapore. (2015, November 2). 1963 parliamentary election results. Retrieved from Elections Department Singapore website: http://www.eld.gov.sg/elections_past_parliamentary1963.html; Yap, S., Lim, R., & Leong, W. K. (2010). Men in white: The untold story of Singapore’s ruling political party. Singapore: Straits Times Press, p. 254. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 YAP)
41. Braga-Blake, M. (Ed.). (1992). Singapore Eurasians: Memories and hopes. Singapore: Times Editions, p. 90. (Call no.: RSING 305.80405957 SIN)
42. Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore Tourism Board. (2015, August 25). About STB: History. Retrieved from Singapore Tourism Board website: https://www.stb.gov.sg/about-stb/; Our first cabinet: Where are they now? (1984, November 18). The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. Envoy Byrne in Wellington. (1966, August 20). The Straits Times, p. 8; Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29; Byrne all set for ‘high tempo’ mission. (1973, July 14). The Straits Times, p. 8; Byrne is envoy to Iran, too. (1973, October 7). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Liu, G. (2005). The Singapore Foreign Service: The first 40 years. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 90. (Call no.: q327.5957 LIU)
44. Byrne, the champion of workers and women. (1990, May 19). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, p. 82. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE)
45. Tan, K. Y. L. (1999). The legalists: Kenny Byrne & Eddie Barker. In P. E. Lam & K. Y. L. Tan (Eds.), Lee’s lieutenants: Singapore’s old guard (pp. 70–95). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, pp. 73–74. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 LEE); Byrne – Marcus. (1939, August 6). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Former minister dies. (1990, May 15). The New Paper, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. Chok Tong pays respects to veteran minister. (1990, May 16). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Colony of Singapore. Government gazette. (1958, September 5). (G.N. 85, N.N. 2056). Singapore: [s.n.], p. 1137. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 SGG)



The information in this article is valid as at 9 March 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Personalities
Byrne, Kenneth, 1913-1990
Law and government>>Public administration>>Cabinet (Government Councils)
Politics and Government
Politicians--Singapore--Biography
Personalities>>Biographies>>Political Leaders