Lim Nee Soon



Lim Nee Soon (b. 12 November 1879, Singapore–d. 20 March 1936, Shanghai, China) was a planter and general merchant.1 Upon the completion of his studies in Singapore, Lim worked for various firms until 1911 when he founded his own company, Lim Nee Soon & Co. A rubber and pineapple planter and rubber-factory owner, Lim’s businesses were a booming success.2 He was one of the pioneers of rubber planting, along with Lim Boon Keng (1869–1957) and Tan Chay Yan (1871–1916).3 A consultant to other rubber-estate owners, Lim played an important role in the development of rubber plantations in Nee Soon (now known as Yishun).4

Lim’s big investments in the pineapple industry won him the nickname “Pineapple King”.5 A respected community leader and one of the most influential businessmen of the day, he was made a member of the Welfare Board in 1917 and a justice of the peace in 1918.6

Early years
Lim was a Teochew born at Beach Road in Kampong Glam on 12 November 1879.7 His father, Lim Peng Nguan, had arrived on a junk from Chaozhou, China, in the 1860s, and became a sundries trader on Beach Road.8 The elder Lim married the eldest daughter of Teo Lee (b. 1833), a well-known merchant. When his father died in 1887, Lim, then eight years old, was left in the care of his maternal grandfather, who provided the young orphan with a sound Chinese and English education.9 As a Peranakan (Straits Chinese), Lim was popularly known as Bah Soon. Bah Soon Pah Road was named after Lim.10


Education
Lim received his Chinese education at a private Chinese school. After his father passed away, his maternal grandfather sent him to St Joseph’s Institution and later Anglo-Chinese School.11


Early career
Lim’s first job was at his uncle’s textile shop. He then worked for timber merchants, Messrs Tan Tye & Co.12 He took great interest in rubber planting, and in 1905 became a manager at Tan Chor Nam’s rubber estate.13 His next job was as the acting manager of United Singapore Rubber Estates Ltd. In 1910, when Sembawang Rubber Estates was formed, Lim became its first general manager, and later its consultant.14 He subsequently resigned to start his own business as a rubber and pineapple planter, and became a rubber-factory owner.15 Lim also served as a consultant to other rubber estate owners; by then, he had been engaged in business as a merchant, contractor and general commission agent.16


History of rubber
Henry Nicholas Ridley (1855–1956), then director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, developed an improved rubber-tapping technique, and was the strongest advocate of rubber-planting.17 In the early 20th century, the automobile industry boomed and rubber tyres were in great demand. In 1910, the government opened more than 2,000 ac of reserved land in Nee Soon to encourage rubber-planting.18 Rubber thus became Malaya’s and Singapore’s export wealth for more than 50 years.19


Business enterprises
At the end of the 19th century, in the wake of declining fortunes from gambier and pepper cultivation, large tracts of these plantations in Yishun were replaced with rubber and pineapple plantations.20 Since 1905, Lim had been acquiring land around the Seletar River area (within the present-day Yishun) and leasing freehold land from the colonial government for rubber cultivation.21 He also went into a joint venture with some friends to set up the Thong Aik shop at Jia Chui Kang (later renamed Nee Soon Village), which sold food and daily necessities to plantation workers and also served as an office for the management of his plantations nearby.22


In 1911, Nee Soon set up his own rubber and pineapple trading company, Lim Nee Soon & Co., chop “Thong Bee”, with an office at 5 Beach Road.23 Around 1911 or 1912, he also established Thong Aik Rubber Factory near Jalan Ulu Seletar.24 His businesses flourished.25 In 1913, together with Lim Boon Keng, Lee Choon Guan, Yap Geok Song and others, he formed Bulim Plantations Ltd and purchased 880 ac of land at Choa Chu Kang. The following year, he teamed up with Lim Boon Keng and others to set up the 1,085-acre Han Yang Plantation in Johor.26

Besides rubber, Lim also cultivated pineapples, which were a good inter-crop with the slow-growing rubber trees, at his plantations. His great interest in the pineapple industry won him the nickname “Pineapple King”. Lim’s generosity was remembered during World War I, when he presented pineapples to the officers and men of HMS Malaya during the ship’s stopover in Singapore. For his liberal pineapple gifts to the troops, he received special acknowledgement from Brigadier-General Ridout.27

Besides rubber and pineapple cultivation, Lim also engaged in other businesses. By 1918, he was the director of many companies such as Chinese Commercial Bank, Eastern United Assurance Co. Ltd., Ulu Pandan Rubber Estates Ltd., United Sawmills Ltd., Hanyang Plantations Ltd. and Kulim Plantations Ltd.28

1920s
In 1925, Lim was listed as one of the founders or executives of the following companies: Oversea Chinese Bank (chairman), Chinese Commercial Bank Ltd. (vice-chairman), Overseas Assurance Corporation (chairman), Eastern United Assurance Corporation Ltd. (director) and Nee Soon & Sons (chairman).29 However, Lim’s businesses encountered financial difficulties during this period due to the decline in pineapple and rubber prices.30 In 1928, “Rubber King” Lee Kong Chian took over Nee Soon & Sons Ltd., and renamed it Lee Rubber.31


1930s
By the 1930s during the Great Depression, Lim had sold most of his rubber holdings but managed to hold on to some properties. In early 1936, he took a trip to China to seek treatment for his leg ailments.32


Property
At the peak of his career, Lim owned a number of rubber estates in Singapore and Malaysia, including Yunnan Plantation in Jurong, Bulim Plantation in Choa Chu Kang, West Hill Plantation in Sembawang (Chong Pang area), Marsiling Plantation in Mandai, Hua San Plantation in Thomson and a few other plantations around the Seletar River.33 By the 1920s, a large area along the Seletar River had become part of his rubber plantations, and he also built shophouses and dwellings at Seletar Village, which was later named Nee Soon Village after him.34

Community service
A charitable benefactor, Lim took a keen and active interest in public affairs.35 He donated burial land for the Chinese community at Seletar.36 During the Singapore Mutiny in 1915, he succeeded in persuading six mutineers to surrender to the government without resistance.37 He was made a justice of the peace in 1918.38 According to Tan Kah Kee, Lim was one of the co-founders of the Ee Hoe Hean Club, along with seven others. However, this account has been disputed, as Lim was only 16 years old at the time.39


Lim was also a member of the Singapore Rural Board and of the Reformatory Board.40 Together with Tan Kah Kee, he founded The Chinese High School, the first Chinese secondary school in Singapore, which opened on 21 March 1919.41 He donated $10,000 to the school’s building fund, and was made the school’s treasurer.42 In 1919, he became president of Thong Chi Yi Yuen Hospital. He also served as president of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce for two periods (1921–22 and 1925–26), and was a member of the British Malaya Opium Committee in 1924.43 Lim and other Teochew leaders formed the Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan in 1929.44

Besides Nee Soon Village and Bah Soon Pah Road, Nee Soon Road was also named after Lim.45

Diplomat
Lim travelled extensively in the Far East and visited China several times.46 In 1916, he met with then Chinese President Li Yuen Hung in Tianjin. During this visit, he witnessed the great flood of northern China.47 That same year, he had an audience with acting President Feng Kuo Chang in Beijing and ex-President Sun Yat Sen (1866–1925) in Guangdong, where he also interviewed Premier Tuan Chi Jui.48 In 1925, he became an honorary adviser to the Chinese president and to the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce in Beijing.49


Awards
For his services and efforts in promoting Chinese industries abroad, Lim was awarded the Second Class Order of Chiaho Decoration (Excellent Crop) by the Peking government.50


Political and revolutionary activities
Lim is recognised as one of the best friends of the revolutionary leader, Sun Yat Sen. He had befriended and helped the latter with funds for setting up the revolutionary forces for the uprising against Manchu feudal rule in China.51 The Manchus ruled China for 267 years during the Qing dynasty until the successful revolution led by Sun, which brought about the birth of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912.52


In 1904, Lim contributed $50,000 to start a revolutionary newspaper in Singapore known as Thoe Lam Jit Poh. The newspaper was co-founded with other well-known Singapore merchants, Tan Chor Nam and Teo Eng Hock (1871–1959), Lim’s uncle.53 In early 1905, Sun stumbled upon the Thoe Lam Jit Poh 1905 almanac, which was superscribed with a motto urging Chinese nationals to free China from Manchu rule.54 Sun wrote to say that he wanted to meet the newspaper’s founders.55 On 6 April 1906, at the Wan Qing Yuan villa (later known as the Sun Yat Sen Villa), Sun set up the Singapore branch of the revolutionary group, Tongmenghui (The United League), with co-founders Tan Chor Nam as chairman and Teo Eng Hock, Lim Nee Soon and Hsu Tzu Lin as office bearers.56 Their main activities were to spread awareness of the revolution and garner support from the overseas Chinese, collect funds for the cause and recruit volunteers to join the uprisings.57 In the fall of 1907, they produced the short-lived newspaper, Chong Shing Yit Pao (Chong Shing Daily), with Lim as its manager.58 The paper failed due to concerns about showing open support for the revolution, as people feared arrest upon their return to China.59 On 15 December 1911, Sun made his last visit to Singapore and Lim was among the local leaders who entertained him and his entourage.60

After Lim’s death, his son Chong Pang related much of the story of how his father had played a part in the birth of the Republic of China.61 Tongmenghui was reorganised as the Guomindang after the revolution, and a Singapore branch of the Guomindang was set up in 1912 with Lim Boon Keng and Lim Nee Soon among the first office-bearers.62

Family
Wife:
 Wi Pek Hay.63

Sons: Three sons. The two elder sons, Chong Kuo and Chong Pang, were educated at Stephen’s College in Hong Kong. After their studies, they returned to Singapore to help in their father’s business. Chong Kuo Road was named after the eldest son. Second son Chong Pang (1904–56) married Lee Poh Neo, and Chong Pang Village was named after him.64 Chong Kuo married one of Tan Kah Kee’s daughters.65 The third son was Chong Min.66
Daughters: Six daughters. Three were married at the time of Lim’s death – Mrs Oei Tjong Tiong, Mrs See Bong Him and Mrs Tan Huck Thoe. The others were Mui Geck, Lek Geck and Seok Geck.67

Death
Lim had been unwell and was on a health trip in China. He was heading home from China when he died in Shanghai on 20 March 1936 at the relatively young age of 57.68 His embalmed body was to have been brought back to Singapore by his eldest son, Chong Kuo, but the Nanking (today Nanjing) government expressed its desire to give Lim a state funeral and have him buried in Nanking, near the mausoleum of Sun.69


Today

In line with the use of Mandarin as the official Chinese language, many Chinese dialect names in Singapore were translated to Pinyin. Thus, “Nee Soon” place names became “Yishun”.70 A statue of Lim Nee Soon can be found in Yishun Town Park.71




Author
Vernon Cornelius-Takahama




References
1. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community. (1925) [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120; Death. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Dorset, J. W. (Ed.). (1918). Who’s who in Malaya, 1918 [Microfilm no.: NL 5829]. Singapore: Dorset & Co., p. 79.
2. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Mr Lim Nee Soon. (1936, March 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120.
3. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120. 
4. Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives, Oral History Department, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-[HIS]); King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old. Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
5. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120.
6. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120; King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
7. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Mr Lim Nee Soon. (1936, March 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
9. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, pp. 34, 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
10. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 68. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Savage, V., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). Singapore street names: A study of toponymics. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA])
11. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Dorset, J. W. (Ed.). (1918). Who’s who in Malaya, 1918 [Microfilm no.: NL 5829]. Singapore: Dorset & Co., p. 79; King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., pp. 66–69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
12. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
13. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
14. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON); Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120; Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV)
15. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd, p. 120.
16. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS); Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives, Oral History Department, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-[HIS]) 
17. Zaccheus, M. (2015, July 6). Botanic Garden, Singapore’s only World Heritage Site; Gardens’ rubber research a key factor for accolade. The Straits Times; Father of the rubber industry. (2006, April 9). Sunday Mail. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
18. Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives, Oral History Department, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-[HIS]) 
19. Zaccheus, M. (2015, July 6). Botanic Garden, Singapore’s only World Heritage Site; Gardens’ rubber research a key factor for accolade. The Straits Times; Father of the rubber industry. (2006, April 9). Sunday Mail. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
20. Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives, Oral History Department, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-HIS]) 
21. Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS]); King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
22. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
23. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Dorset, J. W. (Ed.). (1918). Who’s who in Malaya, 1918 [Microfilm no.: NL 5829]. Singapore: Dorset & Co., p. 79; Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
24. Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 249. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
25. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
26. Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
27. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 516. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
28. Dorset, J. W. (Ed.). (1918). Who’s who in Malaya, 1918 [Microfilm no.: NL 5829]. Singapore: Dorset & Co., p. 79.
29. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120. 
30. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
31. Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives, Oral History Department, p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-[HIS]) 
32. Lim, K. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
33. Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
34. Lim, K. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., pp. 66, 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Tan, B. L. (1987). Lim Nee Suan: A planter and a revolutionary (C. H. Chua, Trans.). In H. S. Lim, & G. H. Lim (Eds.), The development of Nee Soon Community (pp. 248–255). Xinjiapo: Yishun qu ji ceng zu zhi, guo jia dang an guan, kou shu li shi guan, p. 248. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 DEV-[HIS])
35. Lim, K. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., pp. 68–69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, pp. 516–517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
36. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
37. Mr Lim Nee Soon. (1936, March 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120; Lim, K. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
39. Huang, Y. H. (Ed.). (1985). 《怡和轩九十周年纪念特刊, 1895–1985》 [Yi he xuan jiu shi zhou nian ji nian te kan, 1895–1985]. 新加坡: 大水牛出版机构 [Xinjiapo: Dashuiniu chubanjigou], pp. 197, 199, 210. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 369.25957 YHX)
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42. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
43. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120. 
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46. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120; Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
48. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
49. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no.: NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120. 
50. Who’s who in Malaya, 1925: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya’s community [Microfilm no. : NL 6705]. (1925). Singapore: Fishers Ltd., p. 120; Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])
51. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Wakin, E. (1997). Asian independence leaders. New York: Facts on File News Service, pp. 12, 16. (Call no.: RSEA 950.40922 WAK); Tyers, R. K. (1976). Singapore, then & now. Singapore: University Education Press, pp. 459–461. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 TYE); Low, C. C. (1994). Sun Yat-Sen: Pictorial stories of “father of China. Singapore: Canfonian, p. 80. (Call no.: Y 951.041092 LOW) 
53. Turnbull, C. M. (2009). A history of modern Singapore: 1819–2005. Singapore: NUS Press, p. 122. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-HIS]); Chew, E. C. T., & Lee, E. (Eds.). (1991). A history of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HIS-[HIS]); Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
54. Low, C. C. (1994). Sun Yat-Sen: Pictorial stories of “father of China”. Singapore: Canfonian, p. 248. (Call no.: Y 951.041092 LOW); Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Turnbull, C. M. (2009). A history of modern Singapore: 1819–2005. Singapore: NUS Press, p. 122. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS]); Pan, L. (Ed.). (1998). The encyclopedia of the Chinese overseas. Singapore: Archipelago Press: Chinese Heritage Centre, p. 205. (Call no.: RSING 304.80951 ENC); Chew, E. C. T., & Lee, E. (Eds.). (1991).A history of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HIS); Tyers, R. K. (1976). Singapore, then & now. Singapore: University Education Press, pp. 459–460. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TYE); Low, C. C. (1994). Sun Yat-Sen: Pictorial stories of ‘father of China’. Singapore: Canfonian, p. 239. (Call no.: R 951.041092 LOW) 
57. E. C. T., & Lee, E. (Eds.). (1991).A history of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HIS); Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
58. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Low, C. C. (1994). Sun Yat-Sen: Pictorial stories of “father of China. Singapore: Canfonian, p. 239. (Call no.: Y 951.041092 LOW) 
59. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
60. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 473. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Tyers, R. K. (1976). Singapore, then & now. Singapore: University Education Press, p. 461. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 TYE); Low, C. C. (1994). Sun Yat-Sen: Pictorial stories of “father of China”. Singapore: Canfonian, p. 247. (Call no.: Y 951.041092 LOW) 
61. Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. Turnbull, C. M. (2009). A history of modern Singapore: 1819–2005. Singapore: NUS Press, p. 141. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TUR-[HIS])
63. Death. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
64. Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 517. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS]); Who's who in Malaya, 1939: A biographical record of prominent members of Malaya's community in official, professional and commercial circles. (1939). Singapore: Fishers Ltd & Mass Printers, p. 92. (Call no.: RCLOS 920.0595 WHO); Nee Soon Constituency Citizens’ Consultative Committee. (1987). A pictorial history of Nee Soon Community. Singapore: The grassroots organisations of Nee Soon Constituency: National Archives: Oral History Department, p. 42. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 PIC-[HIS]); Savage, V. R., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2003). Toponymics: A study of Singapore street names. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA]); Turf man dies – his horses won 100 races. (1956, July 22). The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
65. Chinese wedding. (1923, September 24). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
66. Death. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
67. Death. (1936, March 24). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
68. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Singapore merchant dies in Shanghai. (1936, March 21). The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
69. Mr Lim Nee Soon. (1936, March 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 9; Lim Nee Soon to be buried in Nanking. (1936, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
70. Savage, V., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). Singapore street names: A study of toponymics. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, p. 407. (Call no.: RSING 915.9570014 SAV-[TRA])
71. King Lim. (1992). In Singapore days of old (pp. 66–69). Singapore; Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 66. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Statue of Lim Nee Soon unveiled. (1992, January 28). The Straits Times, p. 17. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 2010 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Businessmen--Singapore--Biography
Commerce and Industry>>Industries
Science and technology>>Manufacturing>>Rubber and latex
Lim, Nee Soon, 1879-1936
Personalities
Rubber industry and trade--Singapore
Personalities>>Biographies
Trade and industry
Pineapple industry--Singapore
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Agriculture, fishing and forestry