S. R. Nathan



Sellapan Ramanathan (b. 3 July 1924, Singapore–22 August 2016, Singapore), commonly known as S. R. Nathan, served as the sixth president of Singapore from 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2011. He was Singapore’s longest-serving president. Prior to his presidency, Nathan held key positions in security, intelligence and foreign affairs, and chaired various companies and academic institutions.1

Early life and education
When Nathan was a child, his family moved to Muar, Johor, where his father held a clerical job in a legal firm servicing rubber plantations. However, his father lost his job when the rubber industry declined in the 1930s, and the family moved back to Singapore. His father worked a number of odd jobs but found it difficult to provide for the family, and killed himself when Nathan was eight years old.2

After the family tragedy, Nathan’s family resided with his uncle, and he studied at Anglo-Chinese Primary School, Anglo-Chinese Middle School, Rangoon Road Afternoon School and later Victoria School.3 At the age of 16, Nathan was alleged to have stolen his schoolmate’s books and was sacked by his principal. Not wanting to hurt his family further, he ran away from home. He felt that he could only return after he obtained success in life.4 He found a job at architectural firm, Arbenz & Co.5 Two months later, he moved to Muar to work as a clerk.6 Four years later, he returned to Singapore and reconciled with his mother and family.7

During the Japanese Occupation (1942–45), Nathan received an English–Japanese dictionary as a gift and learned the Japanese language. He excelled as a translator and interpreter, and eventually worked for the top official in the Japanese civilian police.8

After the war ended, Nathan took a hiatus from his job as a clerk at the Public Works Department to pursue his studies. With the assistance of a bursary from Shell, he became one of eight undergraduates in the pioneer group of social work students at the University of Malaya. He graduated with a distinction in diploma in social studies in 1954, after which he worked as an almoner and later Seamen’s Welfare Officer with the Marine Department.9


Career
In 1962, Nathan was seconded to the Labour Research Unit (LRU), an autonomous body created by the government to assist the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) with research and industrial negotiations during a time of industrial unrest and frequent strikes. He joined as an assistant director and was later promoted to director.10

Nathan was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1966, and served as the director of the Security and Intelligence Division (SID) between 1971 and 1979.11 During his tenure as SID director, Nathan dealt with a number of acts of terrorism in Singapore, one of which was the hijacking of the Laju ferry in 1974.12 During the incident, Nathan negotiated for over eight days with four hijackers from the Japanese Red Army and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine for the safe release of the ferry’s crew. He then led a 13-official delegation that accompanied the hijackers on a flight to Kuwait as guarantors of their safe passage after they had released the hostages.13

In 1982, Nathan became the executive chairman of Straits Times Press and then Singapore Press Holdings in 1984.14 In 1988, Nathan was appointed as the high commissioner to Malaysia before becoming ambassador to the United States two years later.15 Both appointments took place against a backdrop of strained bilateral ties. In the case of the former, he took on the appointment soon after then Israeli president Chaim Herzog visited Singapore, which led to tensions with Malaysia.  While serving as ambassador to the United States, Nathan dealt with American diplomatic pressure to prevent the caning of American citizen and convicted vandal Michael Fay.16


In the 1990s, Nathan took on the posts of Singapore’s ambassador-at-large, director of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies and pro-chancellor of the National University of Singapore.17

Presidency
In July 1999, then president Ong Teng Cheong declared his decision not to seek re-election. After being asked to consider running for office by several public figures including then senior minister Lee Kuan Yew and former president Wee Kim Wee, Nathan announced his candidacy for the presidential post on 6 August.18 He was the sole eligible candidate after two other potential candidates failed to meet constitutional criteria for the post. Nathan was sworn into office on 1 September.19 On 17 August 2005, he was re-elected for a second term without contest, as there were no eligible challengers.20

Nathan founded the President’s Challenge in 2000, a series of community-based fundraising events for charity.21 Between 2000 and 2011, the President’s Challenge raised more than S$100 million for more than 500 beneficiary organisations.22 In 2001, Nathan also created the President’s Social Service Awards to recognise achievers in fields such as nursing, social work and environmental activism.23

In 2009, Nathan approved the government’s use of S$4.9 billion from the national reserves to fund antirecessionary measures in the light of the economic downturn then. This marked the first time the government applied to use part of the reserves, which requires the approval of the president and the Council of Presidential Advisers.24

During his two terms as president from 1999 to 2011, Nathan hosted about 50 heads of state and over 100 prime ministers and important delegations on official visits to Singapore.25 He made state visits to around 30 countries, including eight capital cities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).26 Political observers have noted that Nathan’s prior stints in the foreign ministry helped strengthen diplomatic ties and facilitate trade links with many countries.27

In July 2011, Nathan announced that he would not seek a third term as president. He stepped down on 31 August 2011, and was succeeded by Tony Tan.28 Media reports placed a large part of Nathan’s legacy within the context of his work with the disadvantaged, rapport with citizens and various communities, and support of a diverse range of social causes.29

Post-presidency
After stepping down as president, Nathan took up the appointments of distinguished senior fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies and at the Singapore Management University’s School of Social Sciences.30 The S. R. Nathan Education Upliftment Fund, which supports needy students, was established in 2011.31 That year, he also published his memoir, An Unexpected Journey: Path to the Presidency, before venturing into children’s literature with the folktale, The Crane and the Crab, in 2013.32 His second memoir, S R Nathan: 50 Stories from My Life, was also published in 2013.33 In 2012, the National University of Singapore launched the S. R. Nathan Professorship in Social Work, in honour of him. As a tribute to Nathan’s contributions to the country, the Institute of Policy Studies set up the S. R. Nathan Fellowship for the Study of Singapore in 2013.34 In November 2013, Nathan was conferred Order of Temasek (First Class), the nation’s highest award, at the National Day Awards investiture.35 Nathan chaired a panel behind the online project, Days that Changed Singapore, in 2015, which provides a chronicle of events that shaped Singapore over the decades.36

Death
Nathan passed away on 22 August 2016 after suffering a stroke on 31 July.37


Career timeline
1940–1941:
Office boy and various odd jobs38
Feb 1955–Mar 1956:
Almoner, Medical Department, Singapore General Hospital

Mar 1956–1962: Seamen’s Welfare Officer, Marine Department
Jan 1962–Jan 1964: Assistant director, Labour Research Unit39
Jan 1964–Jan 1966:
Director, Labour Research Unit40
Jan 1966–Apr 1988:
Member, board of trustees, Labour Research Unit41
Feb 1966–Jan 1971:
Assistant secretary; later deputy secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs42
Jan 1971–Aug 1971: Acting permanent secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs43
Aug 1971–Feb 1979: Director, Security and Intelligence Division, Ministry of Defence44
1973–1986: Chairman, Mitsubishi Singapore Heavy Industries (Pte) Ltd45
Feb 1979–Feb 1982: First permanent secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs46
1980–1988: Director, Singapore National Oil Company

1982–1988: Director, New Nation Publishing Bhd
1982–1988: Director, Times Publishing Bhd47
Jan 1982–May 1983: Chairman, Hindu Advisory Board48
Feb 1982– Apr 1988: Executive Chairman, Straits Times Press (1975) Ltd, and concurrently director of Singapore Press Holdings Ltd from December 1985 to April 198849
1983–1988: Director, Times Business Publications Ltd
1983–1988: Director, Singapore Mint Pte Ltd, London50
May 1983–Apr 1988: Chairman, Hindu Endowments Board51
1984–1988: Director, The Times of Singapore Pte Ltd
1985–1988: Director, Marshall Cavendish Ltd
1986–1988: Director, The Straits Times Press (London) Ltd
1986–1988: Director, The Times Press Foundation (Singapore) Pte Ltd52
Aug 1991–Aug 1999: Founding member and term trustee of Singapore Indian Development Association53
Apr 1988–Jul 1990: High commissioner to Malaysia

Jul 1990–Jun 1996: Ambassador to the United States54
1996–1999: Director, Singapore International Media Pte Ltd55
Jul 1996: Appointed pro-chancellor, National University of Singapore56
Jul 1996–Aug 1999: Ambassador-at-large
Jul 1996–Aug 1999: Director, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (now known as the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies), Nanyang Technological University57
1997–1999: Member, board of governors, Civil Service College58
1 Sep 1999–31 Aug 2011: President of Singapore; concurrently chancellor, National University of Singapore59

Awards
1964: Public Service Star
1967: Public Administration Medal (Silver)
1974: Meritorious Service Award60
2000: Temasek Sword, (Singapore Police Force)61
2005: Asia-Pacific Regional Distinguished Scout Award62
2007: Eminent Alumni, National University of Singapore63
2010: Al Khalifa Order, Bahrain64
2010: Distinguished Service Award (Gold), Singapore Scout Association65
2011: NTUC 50 Special Recognition Award66
2011: Honorary Doctor of Civil Law, University of Mauritius67
2013: Order of Temasek (First Class)68
2015: Lifetime Achievement Award, National University of Singapore69

Family
Wife: Urmila Nandey70
Children: Daughter Juthika and son Osith

Grandchildren: Kiron, Monisha and Kheshin71



Author
Alvin Chua




References
1. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
2. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 19–21, 25. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
3. Nathan, S. R. (2013). S R Nathan: 50 stories from my life. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 16–19. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
4. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 38-41. Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
5. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 38–40. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
6. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 40-41. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
7. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 38–46, 68–69. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
8. Nathan, S. R. (2013). S R Nathan: 50 stories from my life. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 30–39. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
9. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 141–142, 146, 165, 169, 175. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)

10. Nathan, S. R. (2011). Winning against the odds: The Labour Research Unit in NTUC's founding. Singapore: Straits Times Press, pp. 9–10, 45–46, 82. (Call no.: RSING 331.88095957 NAT); NTUC research unit has broken Red hold on the unions, says report. (1966, March 30). The Straits Times, p. 8; Why S’pore is having fewer and fewer strikes. (1965, August 3). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Nathan, S. R. (2008). Singapore’s foreign policy: Beginnings and future. Singapore: MFA Diplomatic Academy, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 327.5957 NAT); President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
12. Zuraidah Ibrahim & Lim, L. (1999, August 22). He ran away from home when he was 16. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 397–421. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
14. Nathan is new STP chairman. (1982, February 13). The Business Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Nathan, S. R. (2012). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 485. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
15. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
16. Nathan, S. R. (2013). S R Nathan: 50 stories from my life. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 147–155. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
17. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
18. Zuraidah Ibrahim. (1999, August 7). Duty calls for S. R. Nathan. The Straits Times, p. 48; Zuraidah Ibrahim. (1999, August 7). Nathan to run for president. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Chua, M. H. (1999, August 8). Nathan set to be elected president. The Straits Times, p. 1; Zuraidah Ibrahim. (1999, August 19). Nathan elected president. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Nirmala, M. (2005, August 18). President: My new priorities. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Ng, J. (2000, September 3). Wanted: New-age philanthropists. The Straits Times, p. 40. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Nathan, S. R. (2012). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 642. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
22. Nathan, S. R. (2012). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 643. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
23. Big honour for big-hearted HSBC. (2001, November 16). The Business Times, p. 2; Lim, A. (2001, August 25). When the walls came down… Today, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 620–627. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
25. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 637. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
26. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 637. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT); Zakir Hussain. (2011, July 2). Singapore’s no.1 diplomat. The Straits Times, p. 12.  Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Zakir Hussain. (2011, July 2). Singapore’s no.1 diplomat. The Straits Times, p. 12.  Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Cai, H. (2011, September 1). Last day at the office. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. Chang, R. (2011, July 2). The quiet president. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Cai, H. (2011, September 1). Last day at the office. The Straits Times, p. 6; Zakir Hussain. (2011, August 20). President Nathan taking position at think-tank. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore Management University. (2012, July). S R Nathan appointed Distinguished Senior Fellow. SMUEngage, p. 7. Retrieved from Singapore Management University website: http://www.smu.edu.sg/sites/default/files/smu/downloads/smu_engage_-_jul2a.pdf
31. SR Nathan fund launched. (2011, September 19). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Chia, S. (2012, October 6). Nathan fund pledges $820,000 for needy ITE students. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
32. Kor, K. B. (2011, September 20). School dropout who became president. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Nathan, S. R. (2013). The crane and the crab. Singapore: Epigram Books. (Call no.: RSING 428.6 NAT)
33. S R Nathan launches latest memoir. (2013, July 11). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
34. NUS launches new professorship in social work. (2012, September 22). AsiaOne. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; National University of Singapore. (2013). S R Nathan Fellowship for the Study of Singapore. Retrieved from Institute of Policy Studies website: http://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/ips/research/s-r-nathan-fellowship-for-the-study-of-singapore

35. Hoe, P. S. (2013, November 11). Nathan honoured for service to Singapore. The Straits Times, p. 8.  Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
36. Meah, N. (2015, December 24). Days of our lives. The New Paper. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
37. Former president SR Nathan dies, aged 92. (2016, August 22). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
38. Zuraidah Ibrahim & Lim, L. (1999, August 22). He ran away from home when he was 16. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.

39. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 169, 176, 223, 258. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
40. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 258. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT); President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
41. National Trades Union Congress, Amalgamated Union of Statutory Board Employees. (2014, July 3). From NTUC: ‘Happy Birthday Mr SR Nathan!’ Retrieved from National Trades Union Congress website: http://www.ntuc.org.sg/wps/portal/ausbe/home/workingforu/workingforudetails?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/content_library/ntuc/home/working+for+u/47e53c0a-8a6c-43a4-af75-042882bd1310
42. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan; Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 297. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
43. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
44. Civil service reshuffle. (1971, August 6). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
45. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
46. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
47. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
48. Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 443. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT); ‘Apply religion to local context’ call to Hindus. (1982, September 11). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Nathan is new STP chairman. (1982, February 13). The Business Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 485, 492. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
50. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
51. Endowments board members. (1983, August 7). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
52. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
53. Ten prominent Indians get two-year terms on Sinda board. (1991, August 14). The Business Times, p. 22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Baskaran, B., et al. (2012). VR Nathan: Community servant extraordinary. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 361.25092 BAL); Nathan, S. R. (2012). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 645. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
54. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
55. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
56. NUS gets two new pro-chancellors. (1996, July 20). The Straits Times, p. 30. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
58. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
59. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan; National University of Singapore. (2011, October 31). In appreciation of His Excellency S R Nathan. Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://newshub.nus.edu.sg/headlines/1011/dinner_31Oct11.php
60. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan
61. Temasek Sword for president. (2000, December 21). The Straits Times, p. H12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
62. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
63. Nathan given Eminent Alumni award by NUS. (2007, June 30). Today, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
64. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2010, November 22). State visit of President S R Nathan to the Kingdom of Bahrain, 22–24 November 2010 [Press release]. Retrieved from Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: http://www.mfa.gov.sg/content/mfa/overseasmission/cairo/press_statements_speeches/embassy-news-and-press-releases/2010/2010110/press_201011_5.html
65. National University of Singapore. (n.d.). Our chancellors: Speeches and biographical sketch: S. R. Nathan (Sellappan Ramanathan). Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/nusbiodata/bionathan.htm
66. Singapore’s leaders receive NTUC recognition awards. (2011, May 13). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
67. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2011, June 3). State visit of President S R Nathan to the Republic of Mauritius, 4–7 June 2011 [Press release]. Retrieved from Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: http://www.mfa.gov.sg/content/mfa/media_centre/press_room/pr/2011/201106/press_20110603.html

68.Hoe, P. S. (2013, November 11). Nathan honoured for service to Singapore. The Straits Times, p. 8.  Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
69. S R Nathan given Lifetime Achievement award by NUS. (2015, March 2). Today. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
70. President’s Office. (2013, January 25). Mr S R Nathan. Retrieved from The Istana website: http://www.istana.gov.sg/the-president/former-presidents/mr-s-r-nathan

71. Growing up in the Presidents’ shadow. (2011, November 21). MyPaper. Retrieved from AsiaOne website: http://news.asiaone.com/News/AsiaOne+News/Singapore/Story/A1Story20111121-311693/5.html



Further resources
Nathan, S. R. (2008). Singapore’s foreign policy: Beginnings and future. Singapore: MFA Diplomatic Academy.
(Call no.: RSING 327.5957 NAT)

Nathan, S. R. (2010). Why am I here?: Overcoming hardships of local seafarers. Singapore: Centre for Maritime Studies, National University of Singapore.
(Call no.: RSING 331.7613875095957 NAT)

Nathan, S. R. (2011). Winning against the odds: The Labour Research Unit in NTUC’s founding. Singapore: Straits Times Press.
(Call no.: RSING 331.88095957 NAT)



The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Law and government>>Political process>>Leadership
Nathan, S. R., 1924-
Presidents--Singapore--Biography
Politicians--Singapore--Biography
Politicians
Personalities>>Biographies>>Political Leaders