National AIDS Control Programme
The National AIDS Control Programme is an action plan for protecting against and preventing the spread of HIV infection and AIDS in the country. It was formulated by the Advisory Committee on AIDS formed by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in 1985, soon after the first reported case of AIDS in Singapore.1 The activities of the programme include educating and counselling the general public about the deadly disease, protecting the nation’s blood supply through stringent screening, legislating acts to help control and prevent HIV infection, treating HIV and AIDS patients, organising community fund-raising activities, and increasing awareness of AIDS through training and research.2
History of AIDS
AIDS, an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is an infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS weakens an infected person’s immune system, leading to the development of infections and cancers.3 HIV is passed from an infected person to another by the exchange of body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk and other fluids containing blood. Common modes of transmission are sexual contact, sharing or being pricked with an infected needle, transfusion of infected blood and perinatal transmission, namely mother-to-child transmission where babies born to HIV infected mothers can get the infection either in the womb, during childbirth or from breast-feeding.4
Those in the high-risk category for contracting HIV infection include homosexual or bisexual men with multiple sexual partners, promiscuous heterosexuals, drug users who use syringes, and haemophiliacs.5 Health-care workers are also at risk, and are to exercise care by wearing gloves and gowns when in contact with blood-soiled items, body fluids and secretions from HIV-infected patients.6
The term Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was first used in the United States (US) in 1982 for infections affecting the immune system, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The HIV virus was simultaneously isolated by doctors in the US and France in 1983, and was initially named HTLV-III (Human Lymphotropic Virus Type III) or LAV (Lymph Adenopathy Virus) by an international scientific committee. In 1986, HTLV-III was renamed HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus.7
Some of the symptoms displayed by AIDS patients are fatigue, weakness, fever, weight loss, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, swollen glands in the neck and armpit, night sweating, coughing, breathlessness and different infections, especially that of the lungs. AIDS is fatal and results in death. To date, there is no cure or vaccination available for AIDS or HIV.8
AIDS in Singapore
The first HIV-positive case in Singapore was reported in May 1985 and this patient was warded at Middle Road Hospital, which later became the Communicable Diseases Centre (CDC). Soon after this, two more cases were reported. All the three cases were discovered by K. V. Ratnam, a dermato-immunologist at Middle Road Hospital.9
The government reacted immediately to the discovery of these HIV-positive cases by forming the Advisory Committee on AIDS in the same year, 1985. This committee formulated an action plan, called the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), to implement control measures for the prevention of HIV incidences in Singapore. The advisory committee was subsequently replaced by two boards in 1987 – the AIDS Task Force and the National Advisory Committee on AIDS. The two boards took on different tasks to help implement the action plan. The AIDS Task Force advises the MOH on scientific and medical matters pertaining to AIDS, while the National Advisory Committee on AIDS provides community feedback to MOH as well as advice on AIDS education to the public. HIV-infection was deemed a notifiable disease by the Infectious Diseases Act in 1985, and since then, it is compulsory to notify MOH when a person tests positive for HIV infection. The act was later amended such that any action by an HIV-infected person that may result in the transmission of the infection becomes an offence.10 The first AIDS death in Singapore was reported in April 1987.11
Despite the government’s efforts, the number of HIV-positive cases in Singapore has been rising steadily. By June 1992, there were 124 HIV-positive people in Singapore, of whom 27 had died.12 From 2002 to 2007, the number of new cases doubled.13 Many of the patients were warded and treated at the CDC.14
In 1988, the government released around S$2 million of funds for its anti-AIDS campaign, which included a S$400,000 educational blitz via radio and television advertisements.15 In January the same year, the government lifted its ban on condom advertisements.16 Charges for AIDS testing were reduced from S$20 to S$15, and testing centres were opened at the Bedok, Bukit Merah, Ang Mo Kio, Clementi and Kelantan Road polyclinics, as well as at the Kallang Outpatient Dispensary (OPD) and Maxwell Road OPD. In addition, an AIDS Counselling Centre was set up at Rochore OPD, and three AIDS helplines for information and counselling were opened.17
The control measures implemented by the NACP include increasing awareness among the general public on AIDS, educating the public on prevention modes, and counselling those in the high-risk category.18 When the programme was first implemented in 1985, more homosexuals than heterosexuals were infected with the disease. The focus, therefore, was on raising awareness on the methods of prevention, such as the use of condoms.19 However, when increasing numbers of heterosexuals were affected in subsequent years, greater emphasis was placed on educating the public at large.20 They were discouraged from having casual sex with strangers, engaging commercial sex workers and using injectable drugs such as heroin or cocaine. Instead, they were urged to maintain responsible sexual behaviour by remaining faithful to one partner.21
The NACP is also responsible for protecting the nation’s blood supply. It undertakes the routine screening of blood and blood products for HIV, Syphilis and Hepatitis B. Blood donors are filtered with a specially designed questionnaire on their health status and activities associated with HIV infection. Potential candidates are required to declare that their statements are true. Those who make false declarations may be prosecuted by MOH. The programme also monitors the spread of the infection by initiating contact tracing, performing routine screening of prostitutes, monitoring the results of voluntary blood donors as well as monitoring the results of serological testing in patients with sexually transmitted diseases. It is also responsible for notifying MOH of any new AIDS case, and collating results and statistics for the ministry. HIV-infected persons are treated using approved drugs, and undergo counselling regularly.22
The NACP trains medical personnel, healthcare workers, paramedical personnel, counsellors, drug rehabilitation officers, teachers, and anyone who might come in contact with HIV or AIDS-infected persons, by organising workshops on AIDS prevention and control. It also undertakes research projects and studies to evaluate existing programmes, conducts surveys, studies sexual behaviour, and conducts clinical epidemiological studies on HIV infection in Singapore. The government works closely with other ASEAN countries through an information network to monitor the spread of AIDS in Southeast Asia. It also collaborates with the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Development Programme in AIDS prevention and control.23
Action for AIDS
Formed in 1988, Action for AIDS (AFA) is a non-governmental organisation dedicated to fighting AIDS and HIV infection in Singapore. In 2004, AFA became a registered charity recognised by the Institution of Public Character.24 The organisation works closely with the government to prevent the spread of AIDS in Singapore. Some of the activities it organised in 1991 include an AIDS candlelight memorial, a pop concert by entertainer Boy George, and an orientation programme for freshmen at the National University of Singapore.25 In 1996, AFA organised the Art Against AIDS exhibition, which was held at The Substation, Suntec City and Parco Bugis Junction to raise awareness of AIDS.26 In 2012, AFA presented its inaugural Red Ribbon Awards to five recipients – one individual and four organisations – for helping to raise public awareness of HIV and AIDS in Singapore.27
As a part of the government’s multi-pronged plan for the control of AIDS in Singapore, a voluntary quality assurance scheme to test the quality of condoms was introduced in July 1992. The condom certification scheme requires manufacturers and importers to ensure that their products comply with Singapore standards (based on international guidelines) before marketing them. This testing was carried out by the Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research.28
Naidu Ratnala Thulaja
1. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 3–4, 7. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
2. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
3. About HIV and Aids. (2005, November 26). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Aids: What’s safe, what’s not. (1988, November 28). The Straits Times, p. 3; Koh, N. (1985, April 15). If Aids strikes Singapore. The Straits Times, p. 1; Aids can be passed onto babies through breast milk. (1991, August 31). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Aids: What’s safe, what’s not. (1988, November 28). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Pamphlet soon on how to avoid Aids. (1985, April 11). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
7. Aids: What’s safe, what’s not. (1988, November 28). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Koh, N. (1985, April 15). If Aids strikes Singapore. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Kong, S. C. (1985, May 18). Special lab to do Aids tests soon. The Straits Times, p. 15; Tang, K. F. (1988, March 6). AIDS hits home. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 2, 10. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
11. First Aids death in S’pore. (1987, April 8). The Business Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, p. 1. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
13. Action for Aids Singapore. (2008). 20 years of education, care and advocacy: Action for Aids Singapore. Singapore: Author, p. 6. (Call no.: RSING 616.97920095957 TWE)
14. John, A. (2003, May 18). Heroes toil quietly in the humblest of hospitals. The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Ministry to spend $2m on Aids campaign. (1988, November 25). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Prema, L. E. (1988, January 3). Ban on condom ads lifted to fight Aids. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Ministry to spend $2m on Aids campaign. (1988, November 25). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 3–4, 7. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
19. Nathan, D. (1993, November 25). Anti-Aids campaign to target casual sex. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Lim, A. (1997, November 29). Health Ministry to intensify Aids education to up awareness. The Straits Times, p. 48. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Lim, A. (1995, November 29). 82 HIV cases so far this year. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 2, 4–7. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
23. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 5–6, 9, 11. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
24. Toh, S. (1988, December 1). Professionals set up society to fight Aids. The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Action for AIDS. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved 2017, January 25 from Action for AIDS website: http://afa.org.sg/aboutus/
25. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, pp. 7–8. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
26. Action for Aids Singapore. (1996). Art against AIDS: The Singapore Red Ribbon Awards. Singapore: Author. (Call no.: RSING 704.949362196972 ART); Art against AIDS: The Singapore Red Ribbon Awards [Brochure]. (1996). (Call no.: EV13 V1.7)
27. Action for Aids Singapore (2012, December 8). Action for Aids presents the inaugural Red Ribbon Awards [Media release]. Retrieved 2017, January 25 from Action for Aids website: http://www.afa.org.sg/pressrelease/2012160101.pdf
28. Ministry of Information and the Arts. (1992). AIDS: Singapore acts. Singapore: Author, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 614.5993 AID)
Action for Aids. (1991). The Act: An AFA publication. Singapore: Author.
(Call no.: RSING 362.1969792005 A)
Anti-Aids campaign focuses on teens. (1988, December 5). The Straits Times, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
Exploitz.com. (n.d.). Singapore – Aids policy. Retrieved 2003, December 9 from Exploitz.com website: www.exploitz.com/Singapore-Aids-Policy-cg.php
Khoo, V. (1991, December 1). Aids fighters shift into top gear. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
Ministry of Health. (1991). Handbook on prevention of HIV transmission in the health care setting. Singapore: Author.
(Call no.: RCLOS 614.5993 HAN)
Toh, S. (1989, August 16). Group to hold fortnight on Aids and safer sex. The Straits Times, p. 22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
Training & Health Education Department. (1991). We have AIDS. Singapore: Author.
(Call no.: RSING 616.979200222 WE)
Wing, C. (1991). A family guide to HIV & AIDS in Malaysia and Singapore. Penang, Malaysia: Southbound Sendirian Berhad in association with Malaysian Council of Non-Government Organisations for AIDS, and Action for AIDS Singapore.
(Call no.: RSING 616.9792 WIN)
The information in this article is valid as at 2004 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.
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