Hong San See



Hong San See at 31 Mohamed Sultan Road was built between 1908 and 1913.1 It was gazetted as a national monument on 10 November 1978.2 The temple was originally located on Tras Street in Tanjong Pagar when it was first established in 1829. However, that structure was demolished for road widening and replaced with the present building.3

History
In 1829, migrants from Nan’an (or Lam Ann) county in Fujian province, China, established a temple dedicated to the deity Guang Ze Zun Wang on Tras Street. However in 1907, the government acquired the land for road widening and the temple had to be moved. The government paid $50,000 as compensation, and this sum was used to purchase the site at Mohamed Sultan Road for the construction of a new temple.4 Construction work began in 1908, with the building materials and statues of deities imported from China.5 The temple was completed in 1913 and cost $56,000.6

In 1915, a school called Nan Ming School was started within the temple complex to provide education for children from Bukit Ho Swee and other nearby villages. The temple’s side halls were used as classrooms. Ten years later, the school closed down due to financial problems.7

The temple is managed by the Singapore Lam Ann Association, a Hokkien clan group. A full-scale restoration was undertaken between 2006 and 2009 after the corner of a roof collapsed. To ensure authenticity, technical consultants from the Beijing Palace Museum were engaged to draft a detailed restoration plan, and a group of craftsmen who had expertise in restoring China’s national treasures were brought in to undertake the restoration work. The project cost S$3 million, two-thirds of which came from clan and temple devotees and the rest from the Lee Foundation. In 2010, the temple became the first building in Singapore to receive the Award of Excellence in the annual UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation.8

Description
Hong San See, which means “Temple on Phoenix Hill”, is situated at the side of Institution Hill. It overlooks Mohamed Sultan Road and can be accessed by climbing a series of staircases. It originally had a view of the sea, but high-rise buildings constructed in the area over the years have blocked the view.9

Designed by Lim Loh, a well-known building contractor, the temple was built in accordance with the traditional Southern Chinese temple architectural style. This is distinctively reflected in its axial planning, courtyards and walled enclosures.10 The entrance hall and the main hall are separated by a courtyard,11 and arranged along the north-south axis with the entrance facing south.12

The entrance consists of three sets of double-leafed timber doors.13 The main doors have been painted with phoenixes, while the two side doors are painted with door gods. There are two granite columns at the entrance with carvings of entwined dragons and another two columns after the entrance with carvings of flowers and leaves. Covered walkways connect the entrance hall to the main hall, which houses the altar of Guang Ze Zun Wang, the main deity worshipped at Hong San See.14

The temple’s beam-frame structural system is typical of traditional Southern Chinese buildings and the exposed structural elements are richly decorated. The curved roof ridges and eaves feature ornamentation made of ceramic tile pieces brought together using the jian nian (or chien nien) method.15 On the roof ridge of the entrance hall is a hu lu or “bottle gourd” flanked by a pair of dancing dragons. The hu lu is believed to ward off evil spirits.16 Another two dragons sit on either side of a blazing pearl on the roof ridge of the main hall. The pearl symbolises the celestial power of the heavenly gods.17



Authors

Naidu Ratnala Thulaja & Valerie Chew



References
1. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 32. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE)
2. Urban Redevelopment Authority. (1992). Hong San See preservation guidelines (Vol. 1). Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 4. (Call no.: RSING 363.69095957 HON)
3. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 151. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
4. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 32. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE); Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 151. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
5. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 151. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
6. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 32. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE); Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 151. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
7. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, pp. 32, 36. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE)
8. Yen, F. (2010, September 19). The little temple that could. The Straits Times, p. 8; Lin, W. J. (2010, September 25). Hong San See in its glory. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, pp. 32, 36. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE); Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, pp. 151–152. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
10. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam:The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, pp. 151–152. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
11. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
12. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 36. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE)
13. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
14. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 36. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE)
15. Lee, G. B. (2002). The religious monuments of Singapore: Faiths of our forefathers. Singapore: Preservation of Monuments Board: Landmark Books, p. 36. (Call no.: RSING 726.095957 LEE)
16. Liu, G. (1996). In granite and chunam: The national monuments of Singapore. Singapore: Landmark Books and Preservation of Monuments Board, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 725.94095957 LIU)
17. Lip, E. (1983). Chinese temple architecture in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore University Press, p. 46. (Call no. RSING 726.1951095957 LIP)


The information in this article is valid as at 2010 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the project. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Historic buildings
ARchitecture and Landscape>>Building Types>>Historic Buildings
Temples, Chinese--Singapore
Architecture and Landscape>>Building Types>>Religious Buildings
Religious buildings
Historic buildings--Singapore
Arts>>Architecture>>Religious buildings
People and communities>>Social groups and communities