David Saul Marshall


David Saul Marshall (b. 12 March 1908, Singapore–d. 12 December 1995, Singapore),1 Singapore’s first elected chief minister from 6 April 1955 to 7 June 1956, was a diplomat, top-notch criminal lawyer, leader of the Labour Front and founder of the Workers’ Party.2 The bushy-browed politician with his trademark pipe was well-known for his great oratorical skill and stirring speeches made under the “apple tree” at Fullerton Square. He was also known for his clashes with the People’s Action Party (PAP) and its leader, Lee Kuan Yew.3 He served as Singapore’s first ambassador to France, Spain, Portugal and Switzerland between 1978 and 1993 at the invitation of former Foreign Minister S. Rajaratnam.4

Early life
Marshall was the eldest son of seven children of Saul Nassim Mashal, whose name was anglicised to Marshall. Marshall had a strict Orthodox Jewish upbringing, observing all Jewish ceremonies and rituals since his childhood.5 He studied at a number of schools in Singapore, including Raffles Institution where his circle of friends included Benjamin Sheares and George Oehlers, who became Singapore’s second president and first Speaker of Singapore’s Legislative Assembly respectively.6


Marshall was afflicted with poor health as a young adolescent and suffered from malaria and, later, tuberculosis. His dream of obtaining the Queen’s Scholarship to pursue a medical degree was thwarted when he collapsed before the examination. Instead, he went to Belgium to study textile manufacturing. Upon his return, he joined a Straits company as a textile representative and later worked as a salesman and French language teacher, before deciding to pursue a law career in London while in his late 20s.7

Prisoner-of-war
With the impending Japanese invasion of Asia, Marshall’s family left Singapore but Marshall refused to leave.8 Instead, he joined the Singapore Volunteers Corps “B” company. During the war, he was stationed in the southern area under the command of Major-General Keith Simmons. He was captured in February 1942, interned in Changi Prison and later sent to a forced labour camp in Hokkaido, Japan. He was moved to several different prisoner-of-war (POW) camps, where he made an impression on his fellow prisoners for frequently standing up to the Japanese on their behalves.9


After the Japanese surrender, Marshall went to Australia, where his father and brothers were. In 1946, he returned to Singapore and re-joined the law firm, Allen and Gledhill.10

Legal career
Marshall was a lawyer for 41 years and gained a reputation, particularly during the 1950s, as a sensational and brilliant criminal lawyer.11


Upon the completion of his law degree in London and subsequent return to Singapore, Marshall joined the firm Aitken and Ong Siang, and later Allen and Gledhill. He resigned from the latter in January 1950 to again pursue his dream of studying medicine. He subsequently abandoned the idea and joined the law firm Battenberg and Talma instead.12 His involvement in politics left him no time to practise law and he left the firm in March 1955, returning soon after his resignation as chief minister in 1956.13 Upon his retirement as an ambassador in 1992, he joined Drew & Napier as its consultant.14

Marshall was an outspoken lawyer and took a public stand on various legal issues. He vehemently opposed the abolition of trial by jury and opposed capital punishment.15 Coincidentally, he was the defence counsel in the first no-jury trial case in Singapore. In April 1970, he was appointed as a permanent member of the Presidential Council, but resigned on 23 November 1970.16

One blemish on Marshall’s legal career was a six-month suspension in October 1972, after he was found guilty of circulating affidavits. He was then representing newspaper executives from Nanyang Siang Pau who had been detained under the Internal Security Act and undergoing habeas corpus court proceedings.17

Political career
Before Marshall became a household name in Singapore politics, he was actively involved in the founding and running of many societies and organisations fighting for one cause or another. He became the first elected president of the Jewish Welfare Board on 27 June 1946 and remained its president for the next six years. He formed and became honorary secretary of the Singapore War Prisoners’ Association, which fought, among other things, for better compensation for former POWs.18 He was a member of the Singapore Rate Payers Association, arguing against rent control and seeking to lower light, gas and water dues.19 To find an avenue to raise municipal matters, he joined the Singapore Association in 1947.20


David Marshall joined the Singapore Progressive Party in 1949 but resigned in 1952 due to differences of opinion with party president, C. C. Tan. In 1954, he led the Singapore Socialist Party that later entered into an alliance with the Singapore Labour Party to form the Labour Front, with Lim Yew Hock and Francis Thomas as his party colleagues. Marshall became the first chief minister of Singapore when the Labour Front formed the coalition government after the first Legislative Assembly election in 1955.21

During his short tenure of 14 months as chief minister, Marshall had to deal with incidents of civil unrest, including strikes, student demonstrations, and riots such as the Hock Lee bus strike and riot.22 The mass rally he organised to welcome the British parliamentary delegation in March 1956 was used by pro-communist members to stage a riot and discredit Marshall’s leadership. But Marshall continued his efforts to win self-government for Singapore and led an all-party delegation to London from 23 April to 15 May 1956. Differences between parties in the delegation, the inability of the delegation and the British to agree on key issues, and Marshall’s unwillingness to compromise on these key issues, led to the breakdown of the talks.23 Marshall resigned and stepped down as chief minister on 7 June 1956, having failed to obtain self-governance for Singapore.24

Marshall continued to be active in politics as a backbencher. After failing to get the expected support from the left-wing in the April 1957 by-election against Lee Kuan Yew, he resigned from the Legislative Assembly.25 He founded the Workers’ Party (WP) on 7 November 1957 and won the Anson by-election on 15 July 1961.26 However, played out by his own party members, Marshall resigned from the WP in January 1963. He ran again in Anson as an independent candidate but lost by a great margin, the event convincing him it was time to withdraw completely from politics. He later refused  J. B. Jeyaretnam’s request in 1968 to re-join the WP.27

Contributions
Many of the policies and ideas that Marshall introduced before and during his short tenure as chief minister were later expanded on and implemented by the PAP government.28 He inspired the meet-the-people sessions.29 During his tenure as chief minister, the All-party Report on Education Policy and a white paper on education policy were published. They proposed many revolutionary ideas, such as multilingualism and an emphasis on learning English, which formed the basis of Singapore’s present educational system.30


Marshall also advocated the use of three official languages in the Legislative Council to accommodate greater and a more diverse participation in the affairs of the country; this was implemented by the Lim Yew Hock government in 1958. He proposed a scheme to resolve the citizenship issue for 220,000 China-born Chinese, setting the tone for future Singapore citizenship schemes. He appointed B. R. Sreenivasan to head the Malayanisation Commission committee to look into appointing locals in the civil service. Sreenivasan’s recommendations were included in the White Paper on Malayanisation passed by the assembly in 1956.31

Marshall was instrumental in passing the Labour Ordinance towards the end of 1955, which brought an end to long work shifts. When he was in the Progressive Party, Marshall was interested in the idea of a provident fund and even paid a lawyer to get some advice on this. When he came into office, the Central Provident Fund Ordinance of 1953 was amended, exempting contribution from employees earning less than $200. He also established an elected City Council, which replaced the Rural Board; in this, he saw the opportunity to educate the populace on democracy in order to train future legislators.32

Marshall spent two months in China in June 1956 as a guest of the Foreign Relations Institute of China, as well as to lead a trade mission.33 The letters he wrote to his brother during that period were later published by the Singapore Heritage Society as Letters from Mao’s China. They contain valuable insights on communist China.34

Death
Marshall passed away on 12 December 1995 at the age of 87, after a year-long battle with lung cancer.35 In recognition of his exemplary service as a lawyer, he was appointed as the Honorary Member and Fellow of the Academy of Law in 1992, and the David Marshall Professorship in Law was set up in 1995.36 In 2007, the Singapore Management University’s School of Law introduced the David Marshall Prize for the top student in criminal law. The prize was established in perpetuity with a S$50,000 endowed donation by several members of the Jewish community in Singapore.37



Timeline
Kindergarten of the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus on Victoria Street and

St Joseph’s Institution.
1919–23: St Andrew’s School, Singapore.
1923–25: Raffles Institution.
1937: LLB (University of London) and barrister-at-law (Middle Temple, Britain).38
1949–52:
 Singapore Progressive Party.

1954: President, Singapore Socialist Party.39
1955–57: Member, and soon after, leader, Labour Front.
6 Apr 1955–7 Jun 1956: Chief minister.40
23 Apr–15 May 1956: Leads all-party delegation to London.
7 Nov 1957–19 Jan 1963: Chairman, Workers’ Party.41
15 Jul 1961: Wins a seat in the Anson by-election.42
1961–63: Member, Singapore Legislative Assembly.43
1963: Runs unsuccessfully as an independent in Anson.44
Apr–23 Nov 1970: Member, Presidential Council.
Oct 1978: Singapore’s ambassador to France.45
1981: Singapore’s ambassador to Portugal / Singapore’s ambassador to Spain.
1991: Singapore’s ambassador to Switzerland.46
Oct 1993: Consultant, Drew & Napier.47

Other offices
President, United Nations Association of Singapore.48

May 1969–Nov 1974: Chairman, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.
Trustee, Jewish Trust Fund, Singapore.49
President, Singapore Mercantile Co-op Thrift and Loan Society.50

Honours
1965:
Dato Jurnia Johan Pahlawan, conferred by the sultan of Pahang.51

1978: Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur, France.52

Family
Father:
Saul Nassim Mashal, a Sherpadi Jew from Baghdad, was a former dealer in dyed cloth from Mesopotamia, and later a trader in dates and a property broker.53

Mother: Flora Ezekiel Mashal, a highly religious woman who brought up her children strictly observing Sabbath and Jewish rituals and festivities.54
Wife: Jean Mary Gray, a social work lecturer (m. April 1961).55
Son: Jonathan Mark.
Daughters: Ruth Ann, Sarah Farha and Joanna Tamar.56

Publications
Letters from Mao’s China. (1996). Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society.

(Call no.: RSING 951.05 MAR)

Singapore’s struggle for nationhood 1945–59. (1971). Singapore: University Education Press. 
(Call no.: RSEA 959. 57024 MAR-[HIS])

Facets of the accusatorial inquisitorial systems, the ninth Braddell Memorial Lecture, 1978. (1979). Singapore: Malayan Law Journal.
(Call no.: RSING 345.05 MAR)



Author

Sitragandi Arunasalam



References
1. Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27; Chua, M. H. (1995, December 13). David Marshall, 87, dies of cancerThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 1. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
2. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 1, 82. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA) ; Marshall’s famous cases. (1993, October 5). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
3. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 266. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA) ; Kratoska, P. H. (Ed.). (2001). South East Asia: Colonial history (Vol. 5). New York: Routledge, p. 260. (Call no.: RSING 959 SOU); Chua, M. H. (1995, December 13). David Marshall, 87, dies of cancerThe Straits Times, p. 1;  The lion in winter. (1995, December 14). The Business Times, p. 13; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 2. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA) ; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27; Vintage Marshall. (1995, December 14). The Business Times, p. 13. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 18–20. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA) ; Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, pp. 69–70. (Call no.: RSING 920.05957 CHE); Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 13–14. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS]); Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 23–26. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Koh, T., et al. (Eds.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, pp. 388, 472. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
7. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 24, 28–30. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Mok-Ai, I. (1960, October 21). An idealist with a driving force. The Singapore Free Press, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 44, 51, 53. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
8. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 71. (Call no.: RSING 920.05957 CHE)
9. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 41–42, 48–49, 51–52. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG
10. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 53, 60. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 920.05957 CHE)
11. Marshall’s famous cases. (1993, October 5). The Straits Times, p. 6; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
12. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, A political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 39, 42, 60, 70–71. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 191. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
13. Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 197, 427. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
14. Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27; Teo, A. (1995, December 13). One of the most remarkable men S’pore producedThe Business Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 266–267. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Death sentence should go, says Marshall. (1960, April 21). The Straits Times, p. 14; Campbell, W. (1968, December 16). Singapore lawyers oppose move to end system of trial by jury. The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 267–269. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Why I quit – Marshall. (1970, November 24). Singapore Herald, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Hwang, T. F. (1972, October 4). Marshall: Court actionThe Straits Times, p. 1; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-time. The Straits Times, p. 27; Hwang, T. F. (1972, October 8). Marshall suspended. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 62–63, 65. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
19. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 67, 72–73. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Chew, M. (1996). Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, p. 72. (Call no.: RSING 920.05957 CHE)
20. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 67. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
21. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 68, 75, 81, 91–92, 97–98. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Marshall ministry named. (1955, April 7). Indian Daily Mail, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 115–119, 121–124, 196. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Mulliner, K., & The-Mulliner, L. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, p. 103. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS])
23. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 179–181, 183–184, 188, 190–191. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Kratoska, P. H. (Ed.). (2001). South East Asia: Colonial history (Vol. 5). New York: Routledge, pp. 270, 273. (Call no.: RSING 959 SOU)
24. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 196. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Chew, E. C. T., & Lee, E. (Eds.). (1996). A history of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HIS-[HIS]); Chua, M. H. (1995, December 13). David Marshall, 87, dies of cancerThe Straits Times, p. 1; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 196, 231–232, 240–241. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 80. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Raja Ratnam, S. (1957, June 27). The by-elections that attracted red-herrings. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
26. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 243, 254. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Mulliner, K., & The-Mulliner, L. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, p. 160. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS]); Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-time. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 409. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
27. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 263, 269–270. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Mr. M and Mr. Chua: ‘Row personal’. (1963, January 21). The Straits Times, p. 11; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 280. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
29. Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, pp. 27, 164. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 151–153. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27; Multi-linguism. (1955, April 28). Singapore Standard, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
31. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 80, 155–158, 160, 162. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, pp. 79–80. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
32. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 74, 162–163. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
33. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 201–202. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
34. Asad Latif. (1996, September 21). ’56 close-up of emerging China. The Straits Times, p. 18. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. Chua, M. H. (1995, December 13). David Marshall, 87, dies of cancerThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG. 
36. Ex-CJ Wee, Marshall honoured. (1992, April 20). The Business Times, p. 2; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
37. Ng, J. (2007, May 11). SMU law school offers professorship and student awardsThe Straits Times, p. 47. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 23–25, 30. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 22, 32, 35, 45. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN); Lim, M. (1986, April 25). An old boy revisits SJI. The Straits Times, p. 10; Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 70, 75, 81. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Mulliner, K., & The-Mulliner. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, p. 102. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS])
40. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 81–82, 196, 239. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Chew, E. C. T., & Lee, E. (Eds.). (1996). A history of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 HIS-[HIS]); Marshall names his men. (1955. April 7). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
41. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 183–184, 191, 243. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 424–425. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
42. Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 409. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
43. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 243, 254, 263. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
44. Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 425. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
45. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 268–269, 274. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA); Marshall to leave in October. (1978, June 21). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Mulliner, K., & The-Mulliner. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, p. 103. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS])
46. Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 537. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
47. Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27; Teo, A. (1995, December 13). One of the most remarkable men S’pore producedThe Business Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Marshall is UNA president. (1971, April 15). Singapore Herald, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Tan, K. Y. L. (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A biography. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 154, 503–504. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 TAN-[HIS])
50. $9,800 in co-op awards for 156 children. (1972, June 21). The Straits Times, p. 18. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. Marshall honoured. (1965, May 31). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. France’s top award for Marshall. (1978, April 6). The Straits Times, p. 21. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
53. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 16, 19. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA) ; Marshalling his people. (1992). In Singapore days of old: A special commemorative history of Singapore published on the 10th anniversary of Singapore Tatler. Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
54. Chan, H. C. (2001). A sensation of independence: David Marshall, a political biography. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 4, 20–21. (Call no.: RSING 324.2092 CHA)
55. Sim, S. (1995, December 13). Shooting star of Singapore a legend in his life-timeThe Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Chan, H. C. (1984, August 26). Marshall. Singapore Monitor, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 2008 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Cabinet officers--Singapore--Biography
Marshall, David Saul, 1908-1995
Law and government>>Public administration>>Cabinet (Government Councils)
Politicians--Singapore--Biography
Politicians
Personalities>>Biographies>>Political Leaders