Vesak Day



Vesak Day, spelt Wesak Day until the 1970s, commemorates the birth, enlightenment and attainment of nirvana of Siddharta Gautama Shakyamuni (Sakyamuni) Buddha.1 The day falls on the full moon of the fourth lunar month.2

Celebrations in Singapore
The earliest mention in The Straits Times of Vesak Day being celebrated in Singapore was a notice by jeweller B. P. de Silva on 8 May 1925 that his shop would be closed to celebrate the Wesak Festival.3

The move to make Vesak Day a public holiday only started after World War II. According to Ong Y. D., the first of many petitions to the government to make Vesak Day a public holiday was from the Singapore Buddhist Association in October 1947. Both the Buddhist Theravada and Mahayana communities then united to form a joint Vesak Holiday Committee in 1949. However, in 1950, a government select committee did not recommend adding Vesak Day to the number of holidays, stating that there was “insufficient evidence” of public support.4

It was only in June 1955, after David Marshall’s Labour Front government had come to power, that Vesak Day was made a public holiday in Singapore.5 The date for the first Vesak Day celebration was gazetted as 23 May 1956 after consultation with the Singapore Buddhist Association. However, the full moon in May 1956 fell on the 24th. This sparked a protest from other Buddhist groups, particularly the Buddhist Union,6 and the first Vesak Day was eventually moved to 24 May 1956. Despite a subsequent protest by the Singapore Buddhist Association that Vesak Day could not be celebrated on the 24th because of a lunar eclipse that night, the date remained set unchanged.7

Buddhists believe that performing good deeds on Vesak Day multiplies merit many times over. General rites and rituals carried out on Vesak Day include the chanting of mantras; releasing of caged birds and animals; having vegetarian meals; and “bathing” a Buddha statue, a reference to the legend of the child Buddha being showered with the waters of nine dragons soon after birth.8 These acts of generosity observed by Buddhist temples are also known as Dana.9 Most statues of the Lord Buddha are illuminated on Vesak Day. The celebrations conclude with a candlelight procession through the streets. The Buddhist community in Singapore is made up of various versions, each of them celebrating the occasion in various ways.10

The Mahayana (“Greater Way”) constitutes mainly Chinese Singaporeans and form the majority of Buddhists in Singapore.11 Mahayana Buddhism was brought to Singapore in 1884 through individual missionaries from China’s southern province. The focus of Mahayana Buddhism is that nirvana can be attained not only through self-perseverance but also through the help of bodhisattvas or “enlightened ones”. One such bodhisattva highly regarded in Singapore is guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy. Mahayana Buddhist temples in Singapore, such as the Kong Meng San Phor Kark See Monastery on Bright Hill Road, practise the “three-step, one-bow” ritual on Vesak Day. Devotees prostrate themselves at every third step, believing that the ritual will help purify their minds as well as repent. The exhausting two-hour procession actually begins 24 hours earlier where many would reserve a place in the procession with as little as a tissue packet.12

Theravada (Way of the Elders) Buddhism is mainly practised by Singapore’s Sri Lankan and Burmese Buddhist communities.13 The focus of Theravada Buddhism is to seek one’s own path to salvation. The Burmese Buddhist Temple at Geylang and the Sri Lankaramaya Temple at St Michael’s Road perform a ritual of cooking a pot of rice in milk on Vesak Day, reminiscent of the bowl of rice-milk Buddha accepted from a woman before he attained enlightenment.14

The turn of the century has seen some changes in the celebration of Vesak Day. Since the 1990s, Buddhist organisations have increasingly turned away from promoting the release of animals. Some organisations have even hosted exhibitions and talks about the adverse effects of releasing animals into the wild.15 In 2004, a group of volunteers started patrolling parks and reservoirs on Vesak Day to educate the public on the issue. This annual effort cumulated in Operation No Release in 2006.16 In 2002, an annual community celebration along Little India's Serangoon Road was started, followed by the Chinatown Vesak Festival at South Bridge Road in 2007.17



Authors

Suchitthra Vasu & Timothy Pwee



References
1. Birth of Buddha: Religious significance of the day. (1933, May 12). The Straits Times, p. 7; Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. A day of celebration. (2008, May 13). The Straits Times, p. 114. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
3. Notice. (1925, May 8). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Ong, Y. D. (2005). Buddhism in Singapore - a short narrative history. Singapore: Skylark Publications, p. 85. (Call no.: RSING 294.3095957 ONG); 'Extra holidays not justified'. (1950, July 19). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Holidays change in Singapore. (1955, June 15). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ong, Y. D. (2005). Buddhism in Singapore - a short narrative history. Singapore: Skylark Publications, p. 92. (Call no.: RSING 294.3095957 ONG)
6. Wesak Day: Let's get it right, says Buddhists. (1956, April 16). The Straits Times, p. 7; Wesak: Decision today. (1956, May 2). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
7. Lunar eclipse on Wesak Day sets Buddhists off again. (1956, May 15). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4; A day of celebration. (2008, May 13). The Straits Times, p. 114; Dances, songs and cross-talks to celebrate Vesak Day today. (1995, May 14). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ong, Y. D. (2005). Buddhism in Singapore a short narrative history. Singapore: Skylark Publications, p. 93. (Call no.: RSING 294.3095957 ONG)
9. Ng, E. (1980, May 29). Bustle of activity as Buddhists celebrate Vesak. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Ong, Y. D. (2005). Buddhism in Singapore a short narrative history. Singapore: Skylark Publications, p. 93. (Call no.: RSING 294.3095957 ONG)
11. Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
14. Wee, L. (1995, May 14). Merit way to salvation. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Tan, D. (1995, May 18). Buddhists advised not to free birds and animals. The Straits Times, p. 24; A day of celebration. (2008, May 13). The Straits Times, p. 114. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Tan, T. (2006, May 13). Fewer cases of animals released into the wildThe Straits Times, p. 15. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Chan, B. (2007, May 19). Parade, Chinatown light-up to mark VesakThe Straits Times, p. 2; Celebrate Vesak Day in Little India. (2002, May 17). The Straits Times, p. 47. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 2008 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Philosophy, psychology and religion>>Religion>>Buddhism
Ethnic festivals
Buddhism--Singapore
People and communities>>Customs>>Festivities
Festivals--Singapore
Ethnic Communities>>Festivals and Celebrations