Pulau Brani



Pulau Brani, which means “isle of the brave” in Malay, is an island situated at the south of Singapore’s Central Region.1 It was once home to the orang laut. For a while, the island had a brick kiln, a coal depot, a tin smelting plant and a ship-repairing dock. For many years, it was also a British naval base and later a facility of the Republic of Singapore Navy.

History
There were different names for Pulau Brani in early Singapore, such as Pulau Ayer Brani and Pulo Brani.2 The island was once the home of the orang laut.3

Early developments
In late 1838, Charles Prinsep, from the East India Company, wanted to construct buildings and a patent slip on Pulau Brani, but the area had to be surveyed before the lease could be issued. In January 1846, former ship captain Jacob Clunis designed and proposed the erection of a 300-foot (91-metre) long, 68-foot (20.7-metre) wide, 15-foot (4.5-metre) deep dry dock, in place of the patent slip that was never built by Princep. Clunis’s proposal also did not materialise due to insufficient funds. Instead, he erected a brick factory and yard for repairing small boats. However, these did not last as the government repossessed the island for defence purposes, following which it became a small repair dock for British naval vessels.4

Fort Teregah (sometimes spelled as Teregeh), a coastal battery with two 64-pounder rifled muzzle loading guns, was built on the southeast extremity of Pulau Brani in 1861, forming part of Singapore’s fortification works in the 19th century.5 The fort no longer played a prominent role in Singapore’s defence by the early 20th century, and it was abandoned by 1942.6

In 1865, a naval coal depot was completed on the island. It had two coal sheds, a small house for the superintendent, a quay wall and a short wooden pier.7 In August 1866, shipwrights J. C. Buyers and Daniel Robb opened a small ship-repairing dock on the west side of the island. Known as Bon Accord Dock, it was 300-foot long and 75-foot (22.9-metre) wide.8

As Pulau Brani was known for its “cross tide and dangerous mooring”, the Royal Navy decided not to use its wharf. In addition, the eastern part of the island was for a long time known for its shallow waters and stretch of reefs, which had probably caused the SS Himalaya to run aground in 1868.9


In 1890, the Straits Trading Company set up a modern Western-style tin smelting plant on the island.10 The facility was equipped with a three-ton reverberatory furnace for smelting tin ore shipped from the Malay states, Siam and Australia.11

World War II and after
During World War II, the British destroyed the rubber stock and tin smelting plant on Pulau Brani, just before the fall of Singapore.12 Activities on the island resumed after the war. A 1966 map shows that the Straits Trading Company was still in existence on the island at the time.13

Before the development of Brani Naval Base, the island was home to about 500 Malays and Chinese who lived in houses on stilts. Most of them worked on the mainland.14 In 1974, the naval base was officially opened by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore’s first naval base. It was then known as the Maritime Command Base.15 In 1983, the naval base was expanded with the addition of a second wharf. However, its limited area and competition with the port for space subsequently led the Republic of Singapore Navy to look for alternative sites in Tuas and Changi.16 In 1990, it was announced that Brani Naval Base would be replaced by a new naval base at Changi, which would be twice as big.17


In November 1991, a 330-metre causeway was built to link Brani Naval Base to the mainland.18 In March 2006, the Police Coast Guard vacated its Kallang Regional Base and moved its headquarters to Pulau Brani, occupying the site of the former Brani Naval Base.19

Recent developments
More than half of the island has been occupied by PSA Corporation’s container terminal and other port facilities. A causeway links Pulau Brani with the mainland to facilitate harbour operations.20

Variant names
Early name:
Pulau Ayer Brani (in the 1822 survey charts).21
Cantonese names:
San chu-shek tui-min (opposite the new tin smelting); chha-tin ma-thau tui-min (opposite Jardine’s jetty).22



Author
Vernon Cornelius-Takahama



References
1. Singapore chronicles. (1995). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 184. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
2. What’s in a name. (1990, September 4). The Straits Times, p. 7; [Untitled]. (1846, February 5). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1835–1869), p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
3. Saga of Singapore’s early sea people. (1972, December 15). New Nation, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Bogaars, G. (1956). The Tanjong Pagar Dock Company 18641905. Singapore: G.P.O., pp. 91, 93, 105, 270. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.51 BOG); Tanjong Pagar (1896, May 1). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, (1884–1942), p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Singapore. Ministry of Defence. Public Affairs Dept. (1988). The Singapore Artillery 100th year commemorative book. Singapore: Headquarters Singapore Artillery, pp. 37–38. (Call no.: RSING 358.12095957 SIN); Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. (2010). Notes of names of places in the island of Singapore and its vicinity: Extended notes. Retrieved 2014, April 10 from The Malaysia Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society website: http://www.mbras.org.my/article3.html; Reith, G. M. (1892). Handbook to Singapore: With map and a plan of the Botanical Gardens. Singapore: Singapore and Straits Printing Office, p. 21. Retrieved from BookSG; Monday, December 2, 1889 . (1889, December 3). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly), p. 684; Singapore Volunteer Artillery . (1901, January 17). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly), p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; The National Archives, United Kingdom (1893). Pulau Brani showing Teregeh Battery [Survey Map]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
6. Singapore. Ministry of Defence. Public Affairs Dept. (1988). The Singapore Artillery 100th year commemorative book. Singapore: Headquarters Singapore Artillery, pp. 37–38. (Call no.: RSING 358.12095957 SIN)
7. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 704. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS])
8. The Singapore Free Press. (1866, March 1). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1835–1869), p. 2; Tanjong Pagar. (1896, May 1). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore 1819–1867. Singapore: Oxford University Press, pp. 494, 704. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS])
10. Tregonning, K. G. (1967). Home port Singapore: A history of Straits Steamship Company Limited, 18901965. Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 16. (Call no.: RSING 387.5095957 TRE); Soh, T. K. (1999, October 18). Straits Trading: From tin to hotels and advertising. The Business Times, p. 4; Straits Trading Co. (1924, July 24). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. The Straits Trading Company Limited: Always A Part Of Singapore Celebrating 125 Years Of Transformation. (2012, November 8). The New Paper, pp. 21–22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Singapore chronicles. (1995). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine Pub., p. 184. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
13. Survey Department, Singapore. (1966).Town Subdivision Number XXIII, Telok Blangah Mukim, and Other Islands Mukim [Survey Map]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
14
. Brani Naval Base. (2000, October 17). The New Paper, p. 10; The Shark Man of Pulau Brani. (2000, October 17). The New Paper, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Brani Naval Base. (2000, October 17). The New Paper, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. A new home. (1992, May 5). The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Plan to replace Brani with new base at Changi. (1990, March 15). The Straits Times, p. 1; New Changi naval base to be twice as large as Brani’s. (1998, January 11). The Straits Times, p. 30. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Brani Naval Base. (2000, October 17). The New Paper, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Boey, D. (2006, March 24). Coast Guard quits oldest base. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Boey, D. (2006, March 24). Coast Guard quits oldest base. The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. What’s in a name. (1990, September 4). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Firmstone, H. (1905, February). Chinese names of streets and places in Singapore and the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42, 53–208, p. 154. (Call no.: RQUIK 959.5 JMBRAS)



The information in this article is valid as at 2004 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Services
Nature and Environment
Streets and Places
Nature
Singapore offshore islands
Urbanization--Singapore
Architecture and Landscape>>Streets and Places
Islands--Singapore
Geography>>Geographical Areas and Countries>>Singapore Offshore Islands
Geography and Travels