Cempedak



Cempedak (Artocarpus integer), also spelt “chempedak”, is a tropical fruit from the Moraceae family. It can be found in Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia.1 Cempedak is similar to the jackfruit in appearance2 as well as in the way the fruit is used. The pulpy flesh covering the seeds found within the fruit is sought after for its fragrant taste. However, the hard seeds can also be cooked and eaten.

Origins and Distribution
Cempedak grows in Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia.3 The cultivated species was believed to have come from bangkong, a wild variety of cempedak.4 However, a study in Sarawak showed no consistent difference between the wild and cultivated varieties.5

Description
The evergreen, branching cempedak tree can grow up to 20 m.6 Each fruit can have between 100 and 500 seeds.7 Its smooth bark becomes thick and rough as it ages.8 Its leaves are dull to medium green and have long brown wiry hair on the surface.9 The tree usually fruits between September and January.10 The fruit can grow up to 30 cm long; the spines on its rind are not as pronounced as the jackfruit’s, and usually has a “waist”, a slight narrowing near the middle of the fruit.11


Usage and Potential
Food
Cempedak’s yellow, custard-like flesh12 and its hard seed are edible.13 The flesh is eaten fresh or cooked — it can be fried or its pulp creamed to make jams and cakes.14 Its flesh can be salted to make a pickle called jerami.15 The hard seeds are boiled or roasted and eaten, a popular practice among the Malayan jungle tribes.16 Cempedak’s young leaves and whole young fruits are cooked as vegetables.17

Other uses
Timber from the cempedak tree is generally durable and is used to make furniture, as well as build houses and boats.18 In Cambodia, Laos, and the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam, the yellow sap from the heartwood is used as a dye for the robes of Buddhist monks.19 The bark is used to make ropes20 while the latex is used to make lime.21

Variant Names
Common name: chempedak, campedak, baroh (Indonesia); chempedak (when cultivated), bankong (when wild) (Malaysia); sonekadat (Myanmar); champada (Thailand); mit tó nù (Vietnam)22
Scientific name: Artocapus integrifolia, A. polyphema, A. champeden23



References
1. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
2. Noparat B. (1990). Production of economic fruits in Southern Thailand and Northern Malaysia. S.l.: s.n., p. 80. (Call no.: RSEA 634.09593 NOP)
3. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
4. Burkill, I. H., et al. (2002). A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula (Vol. 1). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia, p. 251. (Call no.: RSEA 634.9095951 BUR)
5. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
6. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
7. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
8. Othman Yaacob & Subhadrabandhu, S. (1995). The production of economic fruits in South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press, p. 123. (Call no.: RSING 634.0959 OTH)
9. Othman Yaacob & Subhadrabandhu, S. (1995). The production of economic fruits in South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press, p. 123. (Call no.: RSING 634.0959 OTH)
10. Phillipps, K., & Dahlen, M. (1985). A guide to market fruits of Southeast Asia. Quarry Bay, Hong Kong: South China Morning Post Ltd., Publications Division, p. 74. (Call no.: RSEA q641.340959 PHI)
11. Phillipps, K., & Dahlen, M. (1985). A guide to market fruits of Southeast Asia. Quarry Bay, Hong Kong: South China Morning Post Ltd., Publications Division, p. 74. (Call no.: RSEA q641.340959 PHI)
12. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
13. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
14. Phillipps, K., & Dahlen, M. (1985). A guide to market fruits of Southeast Asia. Quarry Bay, Hong Kong: South China Morning Post Ltd., Publications Division, p. 75. (Call no.: RSEA q641.340959 PHI)
15. Burkill, I. H., et al. (2002). A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula (Vol. 1). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia, p. 251. (Call no.: RSEA 634.9095951 BUR)
16. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
17. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
18. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
19. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
20. Tate, D. J. M. (1999). Tropical fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, p. 30. (Call no.: RSEA 634.6 TAT)
21. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
22. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm
23. Jensen, M. (April 2001). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia: An illustrated field guide. Retrieved from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific website: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac775e/ac775e03.htm



The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Science and technology>>Agriculture>>Fruit crops
Plants
Artocarpus--Southeast Asia
Nature>>Plants