Teachers’ Training College



Established on 1 March 1950, the Teachers’ Training College (TTC) was Singapore’s first permanent, fulltime training college for English-medium primary school teachers. Training classes for Chinese-medium teachers were subsequently started at the college in 1955, and a Malay department was formed in 1957. Then in 1960, the TTC set up a Tamil department and expanded its role to include the training of secondary school teachers. By the early 1970s, the TTC’s role had further expanded to include specialised training and upgrading of qualified teachers. In addition, the college had begun to offer postgraduate degrees in education. With the closure of the School of Education at the University of Singapore in December 1971, the TTC became the only institution responsible for teacher education in Singapore. In November 1972, the TTC held its last convocation ceremony and was replaced by the Institute of Education on 1 April 1973.

Historical background
Training in vernacular schools
When Singapore was under British rule, the training of teachers was done largely on an ad hoc basis.1 The various vernacular groups established and managed their own schools, which were staffed by both trained and untrained teachers. The majority of the trained teachers in Chinese schools were recruited from China until training was carried out by several local Chinese secondary girls’ schools. In 1939, the colonial government included a course for Chinese-medium school teachers in the official teachers’ training programme. Some formal training was also provided in 1948.2

Similar to Chinese-medium schools, most of the teachers in Tamil schools were recruited from India. In 1947, a Tamil teachers’ training class was set up by the colonial government. For much of the 19thcentury, Malay teachers were mainly hajis (Muslims who had completed the pilgrimage to Mecca) who taught the Quran in village mosques and prayer houses. It was only in 1878 that a training college for Malay teachers was established in Telok Blangah by the colonial government’s education department. After the college closed down in 1895, Malay teachers received their training in Malaya (now Malaysia) at the Sultan Idris Training College in Tanjong Malim, Perak, and the Malay Women Teachers’ College in Malacca.3

Training in English schools
For the English-medium schools, trained teachers were recruited primarily from England. During the 19th century, an apprentice scheme known as the pupil-teacher system was adopted to train older students to assist teachers in maintaining class discipline and instructing their juniors. In 1907, the training of English school teachers became more systematic with the introduction of a training scheme known as the “Normal Class”, where classes were taught by European staff drawn from the various local schools.4 Under this scheme, trainee teachers worked in schools during mornings and attended lectures two to three afternoons per week.5 While there were several attempts to set up an English teachers’ training college for men in Singapore during the early 1900s, they were unsuccessful because there were insufficient applicants.6 Then in 1928, Raffles College was established, marking the beginning of English-stream graduate teacher training in Singapore.7

Establishment
School enrolment in Singapore expanded at the end of World War II, which led to a significant rise in demand for teachers. The provision of formal organised training for teachers on a long-term basis thus became crucial.8

In 1946, the British colonial government developed a 10-year education plan for Singapore. The first stage in the plan entailed the establishment of a training college for teachers in the colony.9 Consequently, the TTC was established and began operations on 1 March 1950 with the commencement of an intensive three-month special teacher training course for 260 new teachers.10 A unit of the Ministry of Education, the college’s first principal was J. D. Joseph, a senior education officer.11 The TTC was Singapore’s first permanent, full-time training college for English school teachers.12

The TTC’s early focus was on the training of non-graduates as primary school teachers. Graduates, on the other hand, were trained at the University of Malaya (which subsequently became the University of Singapore, followed by the National University of Singapore), which had set up the Department of Education also in 1950.13 By 1958, the department had become the School of Education.14

On 8 June 1951, the TTC was officially opened by then Governor Franklin Gimson.15 At the time, about 1,300 students were receiving training at the college.16

Key developments
Training of primary school teachers
In September 1950, the TTC started a fulltime two-year diploma course that led to the Certificate in Education, which was comparable in standard to the Teaching Certificate of the United Kingdom’s Board of Education.17 Commencing at the same time was the part-time Normal Class course. Besides working as probationers in schools under the supervision of TTC staff, these part-time trainee teachers were also required to attend four to five hours of lessons per week at the college.18

In 1959, Singapore attained self-rule and the People’s Action Party (PAP) was elected to power.19 With the government’s objective of providing every child with at least 10 years of education from age six, large numbers of teachers were needed to cope with the unprecedented expansion in school enrolment. Consequently, the two types of courses at the TTC for primary school teachers – three-year part-time normal course and two-year full-time certificate course – were merged into a single three-year in-service part-time certificate course in January 1960. The objective of introducing the unified part-time training scheme was to provide a steady supply of qualified teachers to the primary schools, which were then increasing at an average rate of one per month.20 Under the revamped training scheme, all trainee teachers had to carry out school duties for half a day and attend a two-hour lecture at the TTC on a daily basis during weekdays. They were also required to teach on Saturdays.21

With the implementation of the unified part-time training scheme at TTC, the shortage of primary school teachers in Singapore was largely overcome by 1966. Fulltime training was reintroduced that year by the college to provide its students with more intensive, quality training.22

Training of secondary school teachers
In 1960, the TTC’s role was expanded to include the training of university graduates as secondary school teachers because student enrolment in government and government-aided secondary schools had risen significantly. Specifically, a one-year in-service course was started at the TTC in September 1960.23 The inaugural course was attended by 134 graduates from the University of Malaya and Nanyang University.24

In 1969, the TTC and the University of Singapore’s School of Education began to jointly conduct one-year teacher training courses for university graduates. Prior to that, separate courses were conducted by the two institutions.25

Courses in mother tongue languages
The TTC rolled out training courses for Chinese-medium teachers in 1955, including a two-year fulltime certificate course and a three-year part-time normal course.26

A Malay department was established at the TTC in 1957 for the training of Malay teachers. Before this, Malay-medium teachers were sent to Perak and Malacca in Malaya for training – a practice that began in the late 19th century.27

The Tamil department in TTC was set up in 1960.28

When the unified part-time training scheme was introduced at the TTC in 1960, the course content for all language streams – English and the mother tongue languages – were standardised.29 This was to ensure that the teachers being trained for the different language streams were of a similar calibre.30

Expansion of courses
During the early 1960s, the government introduced technical training in schools in an attempt to change students’ attitude towards blue-collar jobs and to meet the manpower needs of Singapore’s industrialisation programme at the time.31 In August 1961, the TTC started its first technical teacher training course. The two-year course was conducted jointly with the Singapore Polytechnic and offered trainees specialisations in metalwork, woodwork and electrical fitting. The inaugural batch of 52 students was trained to become technical handicraft teachers in secondary technical and vocational schools.32

A part-time home economics diploma course was subsequently introduced by the TTC in 1962 as an option for students who had completed the first year of the general teaching course. The home economics course was subsequently expanded into a fulltime two-year programme in 1970. The course covered topics such as needlework and dressmaking; cookery and nutrition; budgeting and marketing; home management and housecraft; mothercraft and childcare; and health science. Graduates of the course were qualified not only to teach the subject in secondary schools, but could also work in other vocations such as being a hotel housekeeper or factory food taster.33

By 1969, the range of courses conducted by the TTC had expanded further and they included training in the teaching of specific subjects such as mathematics, science, geography, music, as well as art and craft.34

Establishment of research unit
A research unit was set up at the TTC in June 1959 to conduct studies on primary education in order to discover ways to improve teaching methods, materials and curricula.35 One of the first studies conducted by the research unit involved some 56,000 children. The study examined the rate of reading and level of comprehension of primary one students in English and Chinese schools, as well as Darjah VI (primary six) students in Malay schools (primary education was seven years for Malay schools until 1961 when it was shortened to six years with the discontinuation of Darjah VII).36

Compulsory teacher training
In June 1960, training at the TTC was made compulsory for all new non-graduate and non-TTC-trained teachers who had taken up teaching in Singapore on or after 1 January 1959. However, these teachers were allowed to seek exemption from compulsory training by writing in to the Ministry of Education with their reasons. Teachers who were recruited before 1 January 1959 were also encouraged to apply for training at the college.37

Closure of the University of Singapore’s School of Education
The School of Education at the University of Singapore was closed in December 1971. Consequently, the TTC became the only institution in Singapore responsible for the training and further education of teachers.38

Shift in focus from the late 1960s
On the whole, demand for primary school teachers had stabilised by the late 1960s.39 Attention was then shifted towards enhancing the system and structure of teachers’ education, particularly the training of secondary school teachers. The focus was now on equipping these teachers with more specialised teaching skills, and greater emphasis was placed on subjects like science and mathematics, as well as technical and vocational training.40 In 1968, a programme was introduced to retrain general education teachers to teach technical subjects.41

By the early 1970s, the TTC was responsible for specialised training, retraining and upgrading of qualified teachers, in addition to the training of primary and secondary school teachers. It was also offering postgraduate degrees in education.42 By 1972, the college had trained over 16,000 of the 20,000 teachers then in Singapore’s schools and had become the largest teacher training institution in the region.43

Campuses
When the TTC opened in 1950, it was housed in the former premises of the Anglo-Chinese Secondary School on Cairnhill Road.44 The campus, however, lacked many facilities since it was not designed to serve as a training college for teachers.45 By 1954, the campus had become overcrowded and some of the classes were held in other government schools.46

Accorded high priority by the colonial government, the construction of a second campus for the TTC began in 1954.47 Situated on Paterson Road, facilities at the new campus included a library, gymnasium, playing field, an arts and crafts building, lecture halls, music rooms, science laboratories and hostels. In addition, two “demonstration schools” were built as part of the campus. These became primary schools where children living nearby were enrolled as pupils and taught by trainee teachers who sought to gain real-life teaching experience.48

Given the overcrowding at the Cairnhill Road campus, the TTC started occupying sections of the Paterson Road campus as soon as they were completed. By April 1956, the TTC’s English branch had moved from Cairnhill Road to Paterson Road.49

During the 1960s, the Paterson Road campus was expanded with additions including an auditorium and a cluster of new buildings that housed a language laboratory, gymnasium, library as well as a range of TTC departments.50 On 16 February 1968, the extensions were officially opened by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew.51

Institute of Education
By the late 1960s, it had become apparent that the TTC’s development was impeded by its status as a government department. When lecturers were promoted beyond a certain level, they became eligible for positions in the ministry inspectorate or were appointed as principals, which resulted in a constant turnover of teaching staff. In addition, vacancies in the college were usually filled by members of the education service. Such staff promotion and recruitment policies slowed the TTC’s progress in achieving higher professional and academic standards.52

In November 1972, the TTC held its last convocation ceremony for its final batch of 1,120 graduates.53

On 1 April 1973, the Institute of Education was established. Replacing the TTC, the  Institute of Education’s objective was to improve the quality of teacher training and enhance the professionalism of the teaching service in Singapore.54 Set up as an independent statutory board, the Institute of Education was able to recruit suitable candidates beyond the education service to fill its staff vacancies, such as through the use of open advertisements. It also had greater autonomy in terms of determining the remuneration packages of candidates it hoped to attract.55 Then in 1991, the National Institute of Education was formed through the merger of the Institute of Education and the College of Physical Education.56

Timeline
1 Mar 1950: TTC is established to train English-medium primary school teachers.
8 Jun 1951: Officially opened by then Governor Sir Franklin Gimson.
1955: Starts training classes for Chinese-medium teachers.
1957: Malay department is established.
Jun 1959: Research unit is established.
1960: Tamil department is established.
Jun 1960: Training at the TTC is made compulsory for all new non-graduate and non-TTC-trained teachers who had taken up teaching in Singapore on or after 1 January 1959.
Sep 1960: TTC introduces a one-year in-service course to train university graduates as secondary school teachers.
1969: One-year teacher training courses for graduates are jointly conducted by TTC and the School of Education, University of Singapore, for the first time.
Dec 1971: TTC becomes the sole institution in Singapore responsible for teacher education.
Nov 1972: TTC’s last convocation ceremony is held.
1 Apr 1973: TTC is replaced by Institute of Education.
1991: Institute of Education merged with College of Physical Education to form National Institute of Education.



Author

Cheryl Sim



References
1. Wong, R. H. K. (1974). Educational innovation in Singapore. Paris: Unesco Press, p. 54. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.95957 WON)
2. Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO); Wong, R. H. K. (1974). Educational innovation in Singapore. Paris: Unesco Press, p. 55. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.95957 WON)
3. Thomas, R. M., Goh, K. L., & Mosbergen, R. W. (1980). Singapore. In T. N. Postlethwaite & R. M. Thomas (Eds.), Schooling in the ASEAN region: Primary and secondary education in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (pp. 180–221). Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 372.959 SCH); Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
4. Wong, R. H. K. (1974). Educational innovation in Singapore. Paris: Unesco Press, pp. 54–55. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.95957 WON); Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
5. Eastley, A. (1956, February 1). Singapore spotlight. The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Thomas, R. M., Goh, K. L., & Mosbergen, R. W. (1980). Singapore. In T. N. Postlethwaite & R. M. Thomas (Eds.), Schooling in the ASEAN region: Primary and secondary education in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (pp. 180–221). Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 372.959 SCH)
7. Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
8. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (NIE/NTU), Singapore. (n.d.). Corporate information: History. Retrieved 2016, August 4 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.nie.edu.sg/about-us/corporate-information
9. Big building plan for schools. (1948, December 27). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Doraisamy, T. R. (Ed.). (1969). 150 years of education in Singapore. Singapore: TTC Publications Board, Teachers Training College, pp. 47–48. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 TEA)
10. ‘War’ to destroy illiteracy starts. (1950, March 2). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Owen, K. A. (1957). The history of the Singapore Teachers’ Training College as an instrument of government educational policy, 1950–1955 [Microfilm: A00020689C]. Cardiff: University College Library, p. 90.
11. Federal and colony posts. (1949, August 18). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tham, K. C. (2007). Many pathways. One mission: Fifty years of Singapore education. Singapore: Ministry of Education, p. 38. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 MAN)
12. Cheong, H. H. (1950, August 9). The colony’s new college. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Kwee, M. (1972, December 13). 22 years on... The Straits Times, p. 14; Cheong, H. H. (1950, August 9). The colony’s new college. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (NIE/NTU), Singapore. (n.d.). Corporate information: History. Retrieved 2016, August 4 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.nie.edu.sg/about-us/corporate-information
14. Govt. grant to varsity cut. (1959, September 24). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3; Singapore told how to foster bi-lingualism. (1958, November 7). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Governor to open new college. (1951, June 5). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. A teachers’ college. (1951, June 8). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. 150 to study for teachers’ diplomas. (1950, August 18). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5; A teachers’ college. (1951, June 8). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip, & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
18. 150 to study for teachers’ diplomas. (1950, August 18). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5; ‘Abolish Normal’ call by union. (1959, February 10). The Straits Times, p. 5; A teachers’ college. (1951, June 8). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Premier: We need the help of all in S’pore. (1959, June 6). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Tambyah, D. (1960, October 24). Change in teachers’ training system places an extra burden on the college staff. The Singapore Free Press, p. 6; Singapore’s own university. (1960, June 2). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Minister’s speech. (1967/68). TTC News, 4, 3. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.5 TTCN)
21. The trainee teachers want to discuss the new scheme. (1960, March 5). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Lee, S. S. (1970, November 19). Problems of full-time training. The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. More teachers are needed. (1960, May 20). The Straits Times, p. 16; Tambyah, D. (1960, October 24). Change in teachers’ training system places an extra burden on the college staff. The Singapore Free Press, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. New one-year course for varsity graduates starts at the T. T. C. (1960, August 13). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. University’s School of Education to close soon. (1971, November 10). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
26. Training college begins new plan. (1955, January 15). The Singapore Free Press, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 158. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
28. New department. (1960, August 13). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. New training plan for teachers. (1960, February 23). The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Kwee, M. (1972, December 13). 22 years on... The Straits Times, p. 14. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 161. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
31. Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 163. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
32. Special two-year course begins at the Poly for 52 teachers. (1961, August 22). The Singapore Free Press, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. By taking this TTC course you don’t have to be confined to teaching. (1972, May 29). New Nation, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. In-service courses conducted at TTC in 1969. (1970, January). TTC News, 3(4–5), p. 18. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.5 TTCN)
35. Switchover to new system is a success – TTC chief. (1961, November 6). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
36. Tambyah, D. (1960, October 24). Change in teachers’ training system places an extra burden on the college staff. The Singapore Free Press, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Goh, K. S., et al. (1979, February 10). Report on the Ministry of Education 1978, p. 2-2. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/.
37. Warning to untrained teachers. (1960, June 18). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (NIE/NTU), Singapore. (n.d.). Corporate information: History. Retrieved 2016, August 4 from National Institute of Education website: http://www.nie.edu.sg/about-us/corporate-information
39. Sim, W. K., & Ho, W. K. (1990). 25 years of teacher education. In J. S. K. Yip & W. K. Sim (Eds.), Evolution of educational excellence: 25 years of education in the Republic of Singapore (pp. 157–186). Singapore: Longman Singapore, p. 161. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 EVO)
40. Goh, C. B., & Lee, S. K. (2008). Making teacher education responsive and relevant. In S. K. Lee, et al. (Eds.), Toward a better future: Education and training for economic development in Singapore since 1965 (pp. 96–113). Washington, DC: The World Bank; Singapore: National Institute of Education, p. 98. (Call no.: RSING 370.9595709045 TOW); Doraisamy, T. R. (Ed.). (1969). 150 years of education in Singapore. Singapore: TTC Publications Board, Teachers Training College, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 TEA)
41. Ministry of Education. (1972). Education in Singapore. Singapore: Educational Publications Bureau, p. 62. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 SIN)
42. Ministry of Education. (1972). Education in Singapore. Singapore: Educational Publications Bureau, p. 62. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 SIN); Doraisamy, T. R. (Ed.). (1969). 150 years of education in Singapore. Singapore: TTC Publications Board, Teachers Training College, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 TEA)
43. Kwee, M. (1972, December 13). 22 years on... The Straits Times, p. 14; TTC advanced training to start in 1966. (1965, November 4). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
44. Enrolment to begin early next year. (1949, October 3). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
45. Cairnhill rabbit hutch. (1954, March 18). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Start soon on 3 new schools for 3,840. (1954, July 27). The Singapore Free Press, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. Now top priority in S’pore. (1954, April 5). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Start soon on 3 new schools for 3,840. (1954, July 27). The Singapore Free Press, p. 7; Eastley, A. (1956, February 1). Singapore spotlight. The Singapore Free Press, p. 5; The new Raffles has room for 1,000. (1953, July 23). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Rooms become ready — they walk in. (1956, April 16). The Singapore Free Press, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
50. Switchover to new system is a success — TTC chief. (1961, November 6). The Straits Times, p. 4; Opening of extensions to TTC premises. (1968, February 9). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. The prime minister officially opens the new auditorium and complex of buildings at T. T. C. (1967/68). TTC News, 5, p. 1. (Call no.: RCLOS 370.5 TTCN)
52. Kwee, M. (1972, November 30). Institute to be run on better lines. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Goh, C. B., & Lee, S. K. (2008). Making teacher education responsive and relevant. In S. K. Lee, et al. (Eds.), Toward a better future: Education and training for economic development in Singapore since 1965 (pp. 96–113). Washington, DC: The World Bank; Singapore: National Institute of Education, p. 98. (Call no.: RSING 370.9595709045 TOW)
53. Ooi, T. (1972, November 25). Last grads from TTC. New Nation, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
54. Ooi, T. (1974, August 20). Ministry objective to improve the quality of education. New Nation, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Kwee, M. (1972, November 30). Institute to be run on better lines. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ministry of Education. (1972). Education in Singapore. Singapore: Educational Publications Bureau, p. 61. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 SIN)
56. Tham, K. C. (2007). Many pathways. One mission: Fifty years of Singapore education. Singapore: Ministry of Education, p. 38. (Call no.: RSING 370.95957 MAN)



Further resource
《国家纪事 师资训练学院》 [Diary of a nation: Teacher’s Training College] [Video recording]. (1988). Singapore: Singapore Broadcasting Corporation.
(Call no.: Chinese RSING 370.71105957 DIA)



The information in this article is valid as at 17 September 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Politics and Government
Teachers' Training College (Singapore)
Teachers colleges--Singapore
Streets and Places
Education
Architecture and Landscape>>Streets and Places
Politics and Government>>Education
Architecture and Landscape>>Building Types>>Educational Buildings
Teachers--Training of--Singapore