Hokkien Huay Kuan



With its origins stretching back to 1840, the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan is one of the largest clan associations in Singapore with over 4,500 members as at 2015.1 It is a locality-based clan association for the Hokkien community and serves as an umbrella organisation for all other locality- or surname-based Hokkien clan associations.2

History
The Hokkien Huay Kuan dates its founding to 1840, the same year that construction work on the Thian Hock Keng Chinese temple was reported to be completed.3 Prior to the 1930s, the association was a loose grouping of Hokkien businessmen who also managed the temple’s affairs.4 An inscription in Thian Hock Keng, dated 1850, mentions a hui guan (“clan association” in Mandarin) that met in the back room of the temple.5 The association was formed to deal with matters relating not just to the Hokkiens but also the wider Chinese community.6


The clan association based at the temple was a power base and served as the social focal point for the Hokkien community in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It took the place of Heng San Ting, a temple founded in 1828 by Si Hoo Kee to manage a public cemetery for the Hokkiens.7

The clan association sought to register with the colonial government around 1915 with the name “Thian Hock Keng Hokkien Huay Kuan”, but was exempted from registration.8

Organisation
Prior to 1929, the clan association did not appear to have a clear organisational structure.9 It had neither a membership system nor an elected leadership.10 The association was instead headed by prominent Hokkien merchants such as Tan Tock Seng, Tan Kim Seng, Tan Kim Ching, Khoo Cheng Tiong, Chua Mien Kuay, Tan Boo Liat and See Tiong Wah.11

In 1927, Tan Kah Kee, then a member of the association, began to push for organisational reforms. This move was in response to the apathy shown by the Hokkien merchants towards education matters, especially those concerning the two schools that the Hokkien Huay Kuan founded – Ai Tong and Tao Nan. At the time, Tan was the president and treasurer of Tao Nan School and he could not get office-bearers of the school’s board elected because of a lack of quorum.12

Two meetings were held to discuss solutions to the matter. The first meeting in June 1927 was poorly attended, and at the second meeting the following month, there was a proposal to let the affiliated Hokkien schools be centrally managed by the association. This proposal required an overhaul of the association’s existing organisational structure. It was agreed at the meeting that a 12-man committee be formed to look into reforming the association.13

Tan began introducing organisational reforms after taking over as head of the association in 1929.14 First, a membership system was introduced whereby members would pay a fee, and have the right to vote and be elected to the council.15 Second, a more systematic organisational structure was established with an executive and a supervisory committee as well as five departments put in place. The five departments were general affairs, economics, education, construction and welfare.16 Council members were elected and they in turn chose the office bearers of the executive and supervisory committees.17 Lastly, the management of schools affiliated to the association was centralised.18 The aim of these measures was to transform the association into a dynamic social organisation.19

In 1937, the Hokkien Huay Kuan registered as a non-profit company under the Companies Act.20 It took over the management of the Thian Hock Keng Hokkien Huay Kuan, affiliated temples and cemeteries.21

In 1983, the association’s executive and supervisory committees were replaced with a 37-member council. Five new vice-chairman posts were also created to assist in the running of the general affairs, finance, education, building and charity sections of the association.22 By 2015, there were seven main sections within the association: general affairs, finance, education, property, cultural, social service and membership affairs.23

In the 1980s, then president Wee Cho Yaw proposed changing the clan constitution to put a cap on the tenure of office bearers, but this proposal was rejected by council members at the time.24 It was only in 2004 that the association changed its constitution to limit office-bearers to no more than three consecutive two-year terms in the same position.25

Schools and educational institutions
Education has always been a key concern for the association, which has established a number of schools since the early 20th century, namely: Tao Nan School (1906), Ai Tong School (1912), Chongfu Primary School (1915; originally known as Chong Hock Girls’ School), Nan Chiau High School (1941; originally known as Nan Chiau Teachers’ Training College), Nan Chiau Primary School (1947) and Kong Hwa School (1953).26

The association has also supported education in other ways. In 1953, the association, then led by Tan Lark Sye, donated 523 ac of land in Jurong to establish Nanyang University.27

Affiliated temples
The Hokkien Huay Kuan owns and manages several temples, including Thian Hock Keng, Goh Cho Tua Pek Kong Temple (built 1847 and also known as Rochore Tua Pek Kong Temple), Kim Lan Beo (built 1830; the association took over its management in the 1960s) and the Leng San Teng (built 1885).28

Institutions
Hokkien Foundation

The Hokkien Foundation was incorporated on 2 July 1977 as a company limited by guarantee. The foundation’s main aim is to provide financial support for worthy causes such as disaster relief for victims of floods, war or fire, the destitute elderly, orphans, medical treatment, purchase of cemetery plots and scholarships for the children of members of various Hokkien associations.29

The idea of establishing a charity fund came from Tan Lark Sye in 1972. He had proposed the establishment of a S$3-million fund, and its interest would be used for charitable causes and educational purposes.30 The government initially rejected the association’s application to establish the fund and it was only in 1977 that the fund was approved.31

Cultural academy
In 2014, the association established the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan Cultural Academy,32 which focuses on promoting the Chinese language and Chinese traditional arts through language, cultural and humanities programmes for toddlers, preschoolers, children, youths and adults.33

The academy runs a preschool, whose classes are predominantly conducted in Mandarin.34 The Hokkien Huay Kuan Arts and Cultural Troupe, formed in 1986, is now part of the academy. The cultural troupe includes a children’s acting troupe, Chinese dance troupe (children and young people), choir, Chinese orchestra and drama troupe.35

Properties
The association constructed its first building in 1955 on the site of the original Thian Hock Keng opera stage opposite the temple.36 Tan Lark Sye and Lee Kong Chian each donated $200,000 towards the building fund. Besides the association secretariat, the building also housed Ai Tong School and Chong Fu Primary School. The schools moved out in the 1980s, after which the cultural troupe used the building as its headquarters.37

The old building was eventually torn down and replaced with a modern eight-storey building,38 which officially opened on 16 April 2005.39 In August 2014, the association moved its headquarters from Telok Ayer to the same building as its cultural academy on Sennett Road.40

Besides its headquarters, the association also owns several other commercial properties. These include the Yunnan Gardens property development comprising 306 units of terrace houses, bungalows and semidetached houses. Construction work on the project began in 1989 and was completed over four phases, with all units sold by 2002. Revenue from the project went towards educational and charitable activities.41

The association also developed and owns the 19-storey Scenic Heights condominium on Balestier Road. The project was completed in 2005 and launched in 2006.42

Activities
In addition to running schools and temples, the association also organises various community activities. Between 1956 and 1960, the association organised mass weddings for couples of all dialect groups. These were held every three months at the association building.43 The association organised another mass wedding in 2008. The event saw six new couples taking their wedding vows and 33 couples, some of whom were married by the association during the mass weddings of the 1960s, renewing their vows.44

Over the years, as part of its objective to promote Hokkien and Chinese culture, the association has run ad hoc dialect classes, and organised exhibitions, festivals (such as the biennial Hokkien festival) and Chinese elective programmes in its schools.45 In 2012, in conjunction with the National University of Singapore Language Centre, the association launched a Chinese-language immersion certificate programme for learners at various levels of proficiency.46

In 2012, the association organised the 7th World Fujian Convention, an international gathering of Hokkien people from around the world.47 The association has also published several books on the history and culture of the Hokkien community in Singapore.48

Presidents and chairmen49
1869–1897: Tan Kim Cheng
1897–1915: Tan Boo Liat
1915–1929: Xue Zhong Hua
1929–1950: Tan Kah Kee
1950–1972: Tan Lark Sye
1972–2010: Wee Cho Yaw
2010–: Chua Thian Poh

Timeline
1840: Clan association is founded by Hokkien merchants.
1915/16: Association seeks registration with the colonial government with the name “Thian Hock Keng Hokkien Huay Kuan”, but was exempted from registration.
1929: Reorganisation of the association’s management structure under Tan Kah Kee’s leadership.
1937: Hokkien Huay Kuan is registered as non-profit organisation under the Companies Act.
1953: Association donates land for establishment of Nanyang University campus.
1955: First association building is constructed on a site opposite the Thian Hock Keng Chinese temple in Telok Ayer.
1986: Association’s cultural troupe is formed.
1989: Association ventures into property development with the Yunnan Gardens residential project.
2005: Association’s building at Telok Ayer is rebuilt.
2014: Hokkien Huay Kuan headquarters move into the same building as its newly established cultural academy at Sennett Drive.



Author

Jaime Koh



References
1. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). Member’s corner. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/members-corner
2. 林文丹 & 冯清莲. (编辑) [Lin, W. D., & Feng, Q. L. (Eds.)]. (2005). 《新加坡宗乡会馆史略》[History of clan associations in Singapore]. (Vol. 1). 新加坡: 新加坡宗乡会馆联合总会,[n.p.]. (Call no.: Chinese RSING q369.25957 HIS)
3. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). History. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/history/; Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); 陈丽丁 [Chen, L. D.]. (1981, October 26). 教育事业上光辉形象 福建会馆的伟大贡献 [The Hokkien Huay Kuan’s major contributions in education]. 《星洲日报》 [Sin Chew Jit Poh], p. 15. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
5. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 16, 30. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
6. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 30. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
7. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 11. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会. (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee. (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 6. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
8. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); 陈丽丁 [Chen, L. D.]. (1981, October 26). 教育事业上光辉形象 福建会馆的伟大贡献 [The Hokkien Huay Kuan’s major contributions in education]. 《星洲日报》[Sin Chew Jit Poh], p. 15. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. 福建會舘新委員就職典禮紀盛 [Swearing in ceremony for new Hokkien Huay Kuan committee members]. (1929, March 18). 《南洋商报》[Nanyang Siang Pau], p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 8. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
11. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 38. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); Yong, C. F. (2014). Tan Kah-Kee: The making of an overseas Chinese legend. (Rev. ed.). Singapore: World Scientific, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 YON)
12. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 48–50, 54–55. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); Yong, C. F. (2014). Tan Kah-Kee: The making of an overseas Chinese legend. (Rev. ed.). Singapore: World Scientific, p. 137. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 YON)
13. Yong, C. F. (2014). Tan Kah-Kee: The making of an overseas Chinese legend. (Rev. ed.). Singapore: World Scientific, p. 137. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 YON); Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 49. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
14. 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 8. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
15. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 59. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
16. Yong, C. F. (1992). Chinese leadership and power in colonial Singapore. Singapore: Times Academic Press, pp. 141–142. (Call no.: RSING 959.5702 YON-[HIS]); 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》 [Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 8–9. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
17. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 62. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
18. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 48–49, 54–55. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
19. Yong, C. F. (1992). Chinese leadership and power in colonial Singapore. Singapore: Times Academic Press, p. 142. (Call no.: RSING 959.5702 YON-[HIS])
20. 吴适 (主编) [Wu, S. (Ed.)]. (1994). 《新加坡福建会馆简介》 [An introduction to the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING Chinese 369.25957 XJP); Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 68. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
21. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 68. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
22. Council will run clan group. (1983, March 28). The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). Executive council. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/council-members/
24. Soh, W. L. (2004, July 30). Clan group elects leaders under new rules. The Straits Times, p. 5; Ee, J. (2010, August 8). New Hokkien clan chief sworn in. The Straits Times, p. 13. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Soh, W. L. (2004, July 30). Clan group elects leaders under new rules. The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
26. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). Affiliated schools. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/affiliated-schools/
27. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 89, 91–92. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA); 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 16–17. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
28. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). Our heritage. Retrieved 2016, March 31, from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/our-heritage/; 新加坡福建会馆 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan]. (2005). 新加坡福建会馆三庆大典165周年纪念特刊 1840–2005 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan triple celebrations 165th anniversary souvenir magazine, 1840–2005]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆, p. 14. (Not available in NLB holdings)
29. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). The Hokkien Foundation. Retrieved 2016, March 31, from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/the-hokkien-foundation/; 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 25. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN)
30. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 105. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
31. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 118. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
32. 邢谷一 [Xing, G. Y]. (2014, August 11]. 174年来首次搬离市区, 福建会馆东迁至文化学院 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan moves from the city for the first time in 174 years, establishes cultural academy]. 联合早报 [Lianhe Zaobao]. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
33. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). Cultural Academy. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/cultural-academy/
34. Toh, Y. C. (2013, September 22). Hokkien clan body to open pre-school. The Straits Times, pp. 2/3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; 邢谷一 [Xing, G. Y]. (2014, August 11]. 174年来首次搬离市区, 福建会馆东迁至文化学院 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan moves from the city for the first time in 174 years, establishes cultural academy].《联合早报》[Lianhe Zaobao]. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/ 
35. 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会. (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee. (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》[Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 18. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN); Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan Cultural Academy. (2013). Introduction. Retrieved 2016, March 31, from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan Cultural Academy website: http://www.shhkca.com.sg/Introduction
36. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 102. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
37. 新加坡福建会馆 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan]. (2005). 新加坡福建会馆三庆大典165周年纪念特刊 1840–2005 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan triple celebrations 165th anniversary souvenir magazine, 1840–2005]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆, p. 12. (Not available in NLB holdings)
38. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2015). About us. Retrieved 2016, March 31 from Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan website: http://www.shhk.com.sg/about-us/
39. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 142. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
40. 邢谷一 [Xing, G. Y]. (2014, August 11). 174年来首次搬离市区 福建会馆东迁至文化学院 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan moves from the city for the first time in 174 years, establishes cultural academy]. 《联合早报》 [Lianhe Zaobao]. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Leong, W. K. (2014, August 11). Hokkien clan group leaves Telok Ayer Street after 174 years. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
41. 新加坡福建会馆 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan]. (2005). 新加坡福建会馆三庆大典165周年纪念特刊 1840–2005 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan triple celebrations 165th anniversary souvenir magazine, 1840–2005]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆, p. 13. (Not available in NLB holdings)
42. 新加坡福建会馆 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan]. (2005). 新加坡福建会馆三庆大典165周年纪念特刊 1840–2005 [Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan triple celebrations 165th anniversary souvenir magazine, 1840–2005]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆, p. 13. (Not available in NLB holdings)
43. Guardian of the South Seas: Thian Hock Keng and Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. (2006). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING 369.25957 GUA)
44. 阔别48年 福建会馆要再办集体婚礼 [Hokkien Huay Kuan to hold mass weddings again after 48 years]. (2007, December 13). 《联合早报》[Lianhe Zaobao], p. 11; 明永昌 [Ming, Y. C.]. (2008, February 22). 元宵节新人‘旧人’集体婚礼 天福宫前海誓山盟 [Couples take marriage vows at Thian Hock Keng on Yuan Xiao]. 《联合早报》[Lianhe Zaobao], p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
45. Nothing like language come alive (2009, November 14). The Straits Times, p. 25; Oon, C. (2009, April 7). Dialects draw more new learners. The Straits Times, p. 25; Teo, J. (2008, October 15). All things Hokkien in Fest. The Straits Times, p. 57; Toh, Y. C. (2012, November 25). 4,000 gather for Fujian convention. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. 许翔宇 [Xu, X. Y.]. (2014, April 14). 与国大语言中心合作 福建会馆办华语文凭课程 [Hokkien Huay Kuan to hold Chinese certificate courses in collaboration with NUS Language Centre]. 《联合早报》[Lianhe Zaobao]. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
47. Toh, Y. C. (2012, November 25). 4,000 gather for Fujian convention. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Some titles include: 《头路: 新加坡福建人的行业》[Headway: Occupations of Singapore Hokkien people]. (2008). 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 338.04095957 TL); 《阮这世人: 新加坡福建人的习俗》[Ruan’s people: Customs of Singapore Hokkien people]. (2009). 新加坡:新加坡福建会馆. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 390.095957 RZS-[CUS]); 梁秉賦. (编) [Liang, B. F. (Ed.)]. (2010). 《阮的学堂: 新加坡福建人创办的学校》[Ruan’s school: Schools established by Singapore Hokkien people]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 373.5957 LBF); 方百成 & 杜南发. (编委主任) [Fang, B. C., & Du, N. F. (Eds.)]. (2012). 《世界福建名人录 (新加坡篇) 》[Prominent Hokkien people of the world: Singapore chapter]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 920.05957 PRO)
49. 福建会馆‘华文传统展览’工委会 (编) [Hokkien Huay Kuan ‘Chinese traditions exhibition’ working committee (Ed.)]. (1990). 《闽风南渡》 [Min feng nan du]. Singapore: Hokkien Huay Kuan, pp. 6–11. (Call no.: Chinese RSING 305.895105957 MFN); Ee, J. (2010, August 8). New Hokkien clan chief sworn in. The Straits Times, p. 13. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



Further resources
梁秉賦. (编) [Liang, B. F. (Ed.)]. (2010). 《阮的学堂: 新加坡福建人创办的学校》[Ruan’s school: Schools established by Singapore Hokkien people]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆.
(Call no.: Chinese RSING 373.5957 LBF)

阮这世人: 新加坡福建人的习俗》[Ruan’s people: Customs of Singapore Hokkien people]. (2009). 新加坡:新加坡福建会馆.
(Call no.: Chinese RSING 390.095957 RZS-[CUS])

方百成 & 杜南发. (编委主任) [Fang, B. C., & Du, N. F. (Eds.)]. (2012). 《世界福建名人录 (新加坡篇) 》[Prominent Hokkien people of the world: Singapore chapter]. 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆.
(Call no.: Chinese RSING 920.05957 PRO)

头路: 新加坡福建人的行业》[Headway: Occupations of Singapore Hokkien people]. (2008). 新加坡: 新加坡福建会馆.

(Call no.: Chinese RSING338.04095957 TL)



The information in this article is valid as at 31 March 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Community and Social Services
Organisations>>Associations>>Chinese Clans
Ethnic Communities>>Diaspora
Heritage and Culture
Organisations