The Straits Times



With a history dating back to 1845, The Straits Times is the most widely read newspaper in Singapore with a reported combined print and digital readership of 1.34 million in 2014.1 It is currently the flagship English-language daily newspaper of Singapore Press Holdings Ltd (SPH), one of Asia’s leading media organisations with commercial interests in newspapers, book publishing, radio, television, new media, real estate, online classifieds, events and exhibitions, and education.2

Origins
How The Straits Times was first conceived remains in dispute. The account given by Charles Burton Buckley – an amateur historian and a prominent resident of colonial Singapore – claims that the idea for establishing the newspaper came from an Armenian merchant, Marterus Thaddeus Apcar, who had employed an editor and ordered printing equipment from England for the purpose. Unfortunately, the intended editor died suddenly and Apcar went bankrupt before the arrival of the equipment. As a favour to Apcar, fellow Armenian Catchick Moses bought over the printing press and launched the newspaper in 1845 with Robert Carr Woods, an English journalist from Bombay, as the editor. Historian Constance Mary Turnbull disputed this account, arguing that it was unlikely that an Armenian merchant would have wanted to set up an English-language newspaper. In addition, she argued that given the limited size of the potential readership, it was unlikely that one would have wanted to start a newspaper to rival The Singapore Free Press, which was more established.3


However, it has also been postulated that Apcar wanted to set up a printing press to publish books in Armenian.4

Private business (1845–99)
Early beginnings
The newspaper was originally known as The Straits Times, and Singapore Journal of Commerce, a weekly paper first published on 15 July 1845. The first issue consisted of eight folio pages.5 The content comprised advertisements, an editorial, local news as well as foreign news extracted from overseas newspapers. The newspaper operated from its offices at No. 7 Commercial Square (present-day Raffles Place).6 With no more than 100 subscribers paying $16 a year, the newspaper struggled to survive. Moses withdrew from the business and left it to Woods in 1846.7


Growing pains
In 1858, the newspaper underwent a major change when a daily edition known as Singapore Daily Times, which carried political and local news as well as commercial and shipping information, was introduced.8 The Straits Times, and Singapore Journal of Commerce was published for overseas distribution.9 Shortly before midnight on 16 February 1869, a fire broke out that destroyed the newspaper’s offices and printing equipment in Commercial Square. In spite of the loss, the newspaper managed to publish the issue for the following day with the help of another printer, and remained in print. The company moved into a new rented office space on 25 February.10

In January 1883, the name of the daily paper reverted to The Straits Times, while the weekly issue merged with the Overland Journal and became known as the Straits Times Weekly Issue.11 The newspaper underwent significant changes when Scottish journalist Arnot Reid took over the editorship of the newspaper in 1888. He made several improvements to the newspaper such as enlarging the paper size, expanding content coverage and reducing the price of the newspaper.12 In 1900, Reid returned to United Kingdom and the press was put up for sale.13

Joint-stock company (1900–49)
Expansion and modernisation

In May 1900, The Straits Times moved from private ownership to become a joint-stock company with a capital of $100,000.14 The following year, the press acquired its own premises on Cecil Street, and both the office and printing plant were relocated there in August 1903.15

Alexander William Still was the newspaper’s editor from 1908 to 1926.16 Still’s fearless editorials attracted several commercial libel suits, but they also boosted circulation and advertising revenue.17 In 1928, George William Seabridge, a former news editor of The Statesman, Calcutta, took over the reins as editor. During his 18-year tenure as editor, Seabridge updated the look of the newspaper, increased the number of pages and the use of pictures, and occasionally featured cartoons.18 Seabridge’s other achievements included increasing newspaper circulation and launching a Sunday edition of the newspaper known as The Sunday Times. He also introduced The Straits Times Annual, and acquired The Singapore Free Press. It was under his editorship that the newspaper purchased a rotary press in 1931 – the first to do so in Malaya. Seabridge also oversaw the opening of the newspaper’s London and Kuala Lumpur offices.19

In 1937, the company appointed Alfred Charles Simmons as its general manager. One of Simmons’s initiatives was to lower the price of the newspaper from 10 cents to five cents in order to reach out to the growing middle class. As a result, the newspaper’s circulation rose from less than 5,000 in 1928 to 15,000 in 1939.20

War years
The Straits Times stopped publication during the Japanese Occupation from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation years, the Japanese produced their own English-language newspaper known as The Shonan Times (later renamed The Syonan Shimbun) from the Straits Times offices. They used several technicians who used to work for The Straits Times and recruited local journalists.21

The first postwar issue of The Straits Times was published on 7 September 1945. The newspaper was initially printed in a shortened format due to printing difficulties in the immediate postwar period.22 It also started a trend by placing the news instead of advertisements on the front page, which was the practice at the time.23

Public limited company (1950–83)
Postwar expansion

The 1950s was a time of change for the newspaper. In March 1950, The Straits Times became a public limited company and increased the number of shareholders as well as capital to finance operations and expansion.24 In 1952, the newspaper purchased the Kuala Lumpur-based Malay Mail, and in 1957 it started the romanised Malay newspaper Berita Harian.25

With Simmons leading the newspaper’s expansion, the offices on Cecil Street became too small for the company’s operations. Thus, the newspaper purchased the former Malaya Tribune offices on Anson Road. When these two offices proved insufficient for the company’s needs, the newspaper acquired land at the junction of Kim Seng and River Valley roads to build Times House. 26 The fully air-conditioned building opened on 3 April 1958 and consisted of a front block and a double-story press block.27

Relocation to Kuala Lumpur
In 1959, the company relocated its headquarters to Robson House on Pudu Road, Kuala Lumpur. Simmons had started considering the move soon after the Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957. He felt that Kuala Lumpur was a more convenient distribution point, given its central geographical location and the rising circulation figures in the Federation.28

There were other reasons behind the relocation. The Alliance government in Malaya at the time looked to be more stable and open to free enterprise compared with Singapore, which was then faced with militant trade unions and strikes.29 There was also the assumption that Kuala Lumpur would eventually become the capital of a united Singapore and Malaya.30 In addition, the People’s Action Party (PAP) at the time was antagonistic to The Straits Times, accusing the newspaper of inaccurate reporting and representing British interests.31

The relocation to Kuala Lumpur required some reorganisation. Most of the journalists were transferred to the new headquarters. A skeletal staff remained in Singapore’s Times House supervised by the deputy editor, Wee Kim Wee, a former staff who had left to join the United Press International agency but was invited to return.32 The editor-in-chief at the time was Leslie Hoffman, who was based in Kuala Lumpur.33

Union strikes
From the 1950s onwards, relations between the newspaper’s local staff and management became increasingly strained. In 1954, the newspaper’s printers who belonged to the Singapore Printing Employees’ Union staged a 14-day strike. The underlying issue was discontent over poor pay among the printers.34

In 1966, journalists who were members of the Singapore National Union of Journalists (SNUJ), together with printers, clerical and other staff members of the newspaper staged a five-day strike. This was in response to cuts made to the salary of two SNUJ officials, Peter Lim and Francis Rozario, for taking time off for union work without waiting for management approval.35 The strike was eventually settled when management agreed to higher salaries and back pay for its employees.36

The last journalists’ strike occurred on 23 December 1971 and was staged in protest of the small size of the journalists’ bonus packages.37 The eight-day strike, which involved around 900 journalists and printers from the Straits Times Group and New Nation, prevented The Straits Times from publishing for a week.38 The strike ended when The Straits Times management agreed to pay the workers a two-and-a-half month bonus. Clement Mesanas, then secretary-general of the SNUJ, suggested that the strike helped quicken the pace of decolonisation in the newspaper.39

Separation from Malaysia
Singapore’s separation from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965 made it untenable for The Straits Times to be headquartered in Kuala Lumpur. The impetus for relocation of the newspaper’s headquarters to Singapore came from the Malaysian government, who found it unacceptable that The Straits Times and its subsidiaries, which had widespread circulation and influence in Malaysia, had nearly 70 percent of its equity capital owned in Singapore.40

In 1973, Simmons, then chairman of the Straits Times Group, announced a restructure of the group. This resulted in the formation of two companies: the New Straits Times, which would be a Malaysian publicly owned company; and the Straits Times Press (Singapore), which would be responsible for the group’s subsidiary companies in Singapore and abroad.41

A subsequent reorganisation of the Straits Times Press occurred in 1974 with the passing of the Newspaper and Printing Presses Act. To comply with the Act, the company had to separate its newspaper business from its other subsidiaries. Following this reorganisation, a new company, Straits Times Press (1975) Ltd, was incorporated on 28 May 1975 to operate the newspaper publishing business.42

Reorganisation and restructuring
Up till the early 1980s, the government continued to be wary of The Straits Times and its news coverage. In order to avoid government intervention, the newspaper’s management decided to appoint the former permanent secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, S. R. Nathan, as executive chairman of the Straits Times Press in 1982.43 Nathan has been credited as a bridge-builder who was successful in establishing friendlier ties between the newspaper and the government.44

That same year, the newspaper industry underwent a major restructuring that created two competitive newspaper groups publishing both English and Chinese newspapers. The Singapore News and Publications Ltd (SNPL) was formed by a merger of the Chinese newspapers Nanyang Siang Pau and Sin Chew Jit Poh as a competitor to the Straits Times Group. In addition to its Chinese papers, SNPL published the English-language Singapore Monitor as well as New Nation, which was a newspaper originally under the Straits Times Group and later handed over to SNPL.45

Part of Singapore Press Holdings (1984–present)
Formation of Singapore Press Holdings

In 1984, The Straits Times Press (1975) Ltd merged with Times Publishing Berhad and SNPL to form Singapore Press Holdings Ltd (SPH). Shareholders of the various companies were issued with shares in SPH.46 The merger made SPH one of the most cash-rich companies in Singapore, allowing it to seek new investment opportunities that would permit it to grow into an even larger publications and communications conglomerate.47

Former banker and cabinet minister Lim Kim San replaced S. R. Nathan as executive chairman of SPH in 1988. Upon joining the organisation, Lim’s main objective was to assimilate the SPH into a cohesive entity.48 He also established a management culture that emphasised profitability as well as cost and operational efficiency. Lim served for 14 years as executive chairman, after which he remained for another three years as senior advisor.49

150th anniversary celebrations
The newspaper celebrated its 150th anniversary in 1995. The commemorative items produced for the occasion included a 400-page book titled Dateline Singapore: 150 Years of the Straits Times, written by Turnbull; a special news supplement; and a reproduction of the front page of the first issue of the newspaper published in 1845.50

Consolidation and evolution
In 2002, SPH consolidated its English, Malay and Chinese newsrooms and moved them to its new headquarters in Toa Payoh North.51 Following the move and consolidation, 65 staff from its production, administration and information technology divisions were retrenched as a cost-cutting measure.52 In 2003, Times House was sold to Marco Polo Developments for approximately S$119 million.53

The Straits Times has continued to adapt and improve as a newspaper under SPH, garnering awards and accolades such as the 2014 Newspaper of the Year title by Marketing Magazine.54 The newspaper also started corporate social responsibility initiatives such as the Straits Times School Pocket Money Fund, which was launched by The Straits Times in 2000 as a community project to provide pocket money for children from low-income families.55

The Straits Times, which is available in both print and digital versions, continues to be the most widely read newspaper in Singapore with a daily average circulation of 481,700 as of August 2015.56

170th anniversary celebrations
The Straits Times released a special edition of the paper on 15 July 2015 for its 170th anniversary. The occasion was also marked by a string of events and gifts, including an exhibition held at the ArtScience Museum, titled Singapore Stories: Then, Now, Tomorrow, which showcased the paper’s archival materials;57 a free concert by the Singapore Symphony Orchestra at the Botanic Gardens,58 a commemorative e-book made available for free download,59 a number of contests organised for readers;60 and an overhaul in the newspaper’s design.61

Timeline

15 Jul 1845:
First issue of The Straits Times, and Singapore Journal of Commerce is published, with Robert Carr Woods as editor.

1858: Newspaper becomes an afternoon daily and is renamed Singapore Daily Times.
16 Feb 1869: Fire razes Straits Times office premises and printing equipment.
1883: Daily issue is renamed The Straits Times.
1888:
Arnot Reid is appointed editor.
May 1900:
Newspaper becomes a joint-stock company.

1908: Alexander William Still is appointed editor.
1928: George William Seabridge is appointed editor.
1931: Newspaper purchases a rotary press.
1937: Alfred Charles Simmons is appointed general manager.
1942–45: Newspaper stops production during the Japanese Occupation.
7 Sep 1945: First issue of the newspaper published after the occupation.
Mar 1950: Newspaper becomes a public limited company.
1954: Printers go on a two-week strike.
3 Apr 1958: New office at Times House begins operatons.
1959: Newspaper headquarters relocates to Kuala Lumpur, and Singapore premises become a branch office.
1966: Printers and journalists go on a five-day strike.
1971: Printers and journalists go on an eight-day strike.
1973: Newspaper restructured into two companies: Straits Times Press (Singapore) and New Straits Times.
1975: The Straits Times Press (1975) Ltd is incorporated.
1982: S. R. Nathan is appointed executive chairman; SNPL is formed as a competitor to the Straits Times Group.
1984: The Straits Times Press, SNPL and Times Publishing Bhd are merged to form SPH, a multiplatform media organisation.
1988: Lim Kim San is appointed executive chairman of SPH.
2002: SPH headquarters moves to Toa Payoh North.
2015: The Straits Times celebrates its 170th anniversary.
Aug 2015: The Straits Times reaches a daily average circulation of 481,700.



Author

Stephanie Ho



References
1. Singapore Press Holdings. (2015). Summary report 2015. Singapore: SPH, p. 20. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/system/misc/annualreport/2015/SPH_Summary_Report_2015_(Final).pdf
2. Singapore Press Holdings. (2016). The Straits Times / The Sunday Times. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/our-businesses/newspapers/the-straits-times-the-sunday-times/; Singapore Press Holdings. (2016). About Singapore Press Holdings Ltd. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/about-sph/sph-corporate-profile/
3. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore (Vol. 2). Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 438. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS]); Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of the Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
4. Gareka, B. (2015, July 15). Our Straits Times story. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
5. Buckley, C. B. (1984). An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore  (Vol. 2). Singapore: Oxford University Press, p. 438. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BUC-[HIS]); The Straits Times, and Singapore Journal of Commerce. (1845, July 15). Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of the Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 17, 21. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
7. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of the Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
8. The Singapore Daily Times. (1857, December 17). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of the Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 32. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); Masthead. (1858, January 16). The Straits Times and Singapore Journal of Commerce, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of the Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 44. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); The closing year. (1870, January 1). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); Page 1 advertisements column 1. (1883, January 15). Straits Times Weekly Issue, p. 1; The Straits Times. (1883, January 3). Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 52, 54. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
13. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 56. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); The late Mr. A. Reid. (1901, July 23). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
14. George, C. (1995). 150 years of newspapers: The Straits Times July 15, 1845–1995. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 92. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 ONE)
15. Gareka, B. (2015, July 15). Death & taxes. The Straits Times. Retrieved from website: http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/death-taxes
16. Untitled. (1908, September 15). The Straits Times, p. 6; The retiring editor. (1926, April 27). The Singapore Free Press, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 68–69. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); ‘A.W.S.’ (1931, December 12). Malayan Saturday Post, p. 20. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 81. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); A chapter of our history in Cecil Street. (1947, January 14). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. A chapter of our history in Cecil Street. (1947, January 14). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. A period of great expansion. (1953, January 18). The Straits Times, p. 6; Straits Times to sell at 5 cents. (1938, September 11). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG
21. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 116. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
22. Back again! (1945, September 7). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 133. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
24. George, C. (1995). 150 years of newspapers: The Straits Times July 15, 1845–1995. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 93. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 ONE)
25. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 179, 210. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
26. Times House. (1958, April 3). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Singapore Press Holdings. (2002). Times House 1958–2002. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 7, 9. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TIM)
28. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 213–214. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
29. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
30. George, C. (1995). 150 years of newspapers: The Straits Times July 15, 1845–1995. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 95. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 ONE)
31. PAP and English Press. (1959, April 30). The Straits Times, p. 7; PAP attacks the Straits Times. (1959, April 16). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
32. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR
33. Singapore Press Holdings. (2002). Times House 1958–2002. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TIM)
34. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 191–197. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
35. Tan, S. E. (2002, February 11). Moving with the Times. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
36. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 275–276. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
37. Nanda, A. (December 9, 2012). The day ST presses stopped. The Straits Times. Retrieved from AsiaOne website: http://www.asiaone.com/print/News/Latest%2BNews/Singapore/Story/A1Story20121208-388365.html
38. Newsmen and printers back at work. (1971, December 31). New Nation, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Mesanas, C. (2013). The last great strike. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 203, 234–5. (Call no.: 075.95957 MES)
40. Straits Times proposes major changes. (1973, January 31). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
41. Straits Times proposes major changes. (1973, January 31). The Straits Times, p. 29. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; George, C. (1995). 150 years of newspapers: The Straits Times July 15, 1845–1995. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 95. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 ONE)
42. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 310, 312. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
43. Times House 1958–2002. (2002). Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 47. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TIM); Nathan, S. R. (2011). An unexpected journey: Path to the presidency. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, p. 450-451, 459. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705092 NAT)
44. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, p. 339. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
45. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 342–343. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR); Big revamp of the press by govt. (1982, April 21). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Press merger will take effect from Nov 26. (1984, November 17). The Business Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. SPH will be among the top cash-rich companies. (1984, October 5). The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Turnbull, C. M. (1995). Dateline Singapore: 150 years of The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, pp. 365–367. (Call no.: RSING 079.5957 TUR)
49. Wong, W. K. (2002, November 13). From helm to stern. The Business Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
50. Attempting a record in a race against time. (1995, July 8). The Straits Times, p. 2; Our gift to you, dear reader. (1995, July 15). The Straits Times, p. 2; First Straits Times cover to be reissued to mark 150th year. (1995, April 23). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. Kaur, S. (2001, November 30). SPH papers to come under one roof. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Leong, C. T. (2002, April 20).SPH lays off 65 staff to cut costs. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
53. SPH sells Times House for $118.88m. (2003, November 22). The Business Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
54. Singapore Press Holdings. (2014). Annual report 2014. Singapore: SPH, p. 54. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/system/misc/annualreport/2014/SPH_AR2014_Final.pdf
55. Singapore Press Holdings. (2015). Annual report 2015. Singapore: SPH, p. 108. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/system/misc/annualreport/2015/SPH_AR2015_Final.pdf
56. Singapore Press Holdings. (2015). Annual report 2015. Singapore: SPH, p. 65. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/system/misc/annualreport/2015/SPH_AR2015_Final.pdf
57. Yang, C. (2015, July 17). Exhibition to celebrate Straits Times’ 170th birthday at ArtScience Museum opens to public. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
58. Thousands turn up at Botanic Gardens to watch SSO perform for ST’s 170th birthday. (2015, July 11). The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva
via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
59. Singapore Press Holdings. (2015, July 14). The Straits Times presents its 170th history e-book as birthday gift to the nation [Press release]. Retrieved from Singapore Press Holdings website: http://sph.com.sg/media_releases/2541
60. Chow, J. (2015, February 17). Treats for readers as ST marks 170th year. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
61. Singapore Press Holdings. (2015). Annual report 2015. Singapore: SPH, p. 58. Retrieved from SPH website: http://www.sph.com.sg/system/misc/annualreport/2015/SPH_AR2015_Final.pd




Further resources
Cheong, Y. S. (2013). OB markers: My Straits Times story. Singapore: Straits Times Press.
(Call no.: RSING 079.5759 CHE)

George, C. (2012). Freedom from the press: Journalism and state power in Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press.
(Call no.: RSING 079.5957 GEO)


Mesenas, C. (2013). The last great strike. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions.
(Call no.: RSING 075.95957 MES)



The information in this article is valid as at 28 February 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Singaporean newspapers
English newspapers--Singapore
Communications
Organisations