National Library Board



The National Library Board (NLB) is a statutory board established on 1 September 1995. It currently manages the National Library, a network of public libraries, the National Archives of Singapore (NAS), as well as a digital library that encompasses a range of electronic resources.1 Over the last two decades, the NLB has increased the number of public libraries from 10 in 1995 to the current 26.2 It has at the same time reinvented the role of libraries – from book lenders and venues for research to social learning spaces where people can participate in activities and learn through interacting with others.3 The board has also spearheaded a number of nationwide initiatives to promote reading and learning as well as to improve information literacy among Singaporeans.4

Background
The history of libraries in Singapore began in 1823 when Stamford Raffles, founder of modern Singapore, conceived the establishment of a library within the Singapore Institution (now known as the Raffles Institution).5 While the public could access the school library for a small fee, there were calls for the library to open beyond school hours. Subsequently, the Singapore Library, Singapore’s first subscription-based library for the public, was officially opened on 22 January 1845.6 In 1849, the library’s functions were expanded to include the administration of a museum, and it was renamed the Raffles Library and Museum on 16 July 1874.7 About eight decades later, in 1955, the Raffles Library became a separate entity from the museum.8

Two years earlier, in 1953, rubber tycoon and philanthropist Lee Kong Chian had donated $375,000 for the construction of a library building on Stamford Road. In accordance with Lee’s conditions for his contribution, the resultant Raffles National Library on Stamford Road – officially opened on 12 November 1960 – was made free for Singapore residents under the Raffles National Library Ordinance that took effect on 1 April 1958. The ordinance also instituted the library as the repository for all publications printed and published in Singapore.9 The library was renamed National Library on 1 December 1960.10

Establishment
In June 1992, the Library 2000 Review Committee was set up by the then Ministry of Information and the Arts (now known as the Ministry of Communications and Information) to carry out a comprehensive review of library services in Singapore.11 Chaired by Tan Chin Nam, then managing director of the Economic Development Board and chairman of the National Computer Board, the committee was also tasked with recommending improvements to the public-library system, particularly by harnessing information technology, to better serve Singaporeans in the 21st century.12

In March 1994, the review committee published the Library 2000 report, which provided a framework and a set of recommendations for the development of library services in Singapore.13 It also proposed the establishment of a statutory board to spearhead the transformation of library services as set out in the Library 2000 masterplan.14

To realise the Library 2000 vision, the NLB was established as a statutory board on 1 September 1995, with Christopher Chia as its first chief executive.15 Under the NLB Act, the board’s key functions include the establishment and maintenance of publicly funded libraries, provision of library information services, acquisition and maintenance of a comprehensive collection relating to Singapore and its people, as well as to promote reading and encourage learning through the use of its libraries and services.16 The NLB Act also provides for the legal deposit of all print and non-print materials published in Singapore with the NLB, a continuation of one of the functions set out in the Raffles National Library Ordinance enacted in 1958.17

Transformation and evolution of library services
The first decade
In the first decade following its establishment, the NLB sought to enhance library users’ experience and overcome the general public perception that libraries are boring places with shelves full of old books.18

A series of transformations were made to the library system, supported by a S$1-billion fund from the government in 1996.19 These include the development of a network of shopping mall libraries to “bring the library to the people”, introduction of cafes in the libraries to reinvent the reading experience, addition of programme zones to hold activities such as talks and performances within libraries, sprucing up libraries’ interiors as well as enhancing the attractiveness of library collections by reducing shelf-life and stocking up more of the latest bestsellers and award-winners.20 Key processes were also redesigned and more advanced technology deployed to improve library users’ experience.

In 1996, the bookdrop service was introduced to provide greater convenience for patrons returning books, as they no longer had to queue to return the books and could also drop them off even after the library was closed. Since 1998, all public libraries were outfitted with the automated bookdrop that allows loans to be cancelled almost instantaneously. In addition, under the Book Return @ Any Library service, patrons need not return their books at the library from which they had borrowed the books. Self-service borrowing machines were also installed in all public libraries by 1998, which also led to a significant reduction in queue times at the counters.21

By the time Chia left the NLB in May 2004, the network of public libraries had more than doubled to 22 from 10 in 1995 when the board was established. With these libraries situated in town centres and shopping malls, access to library services has greatly improved.22 In addition, by redesigning library facilities and services, the libraries managed by the NLB have evolved from functional spaces into social spaces and lifestyle venues where people learn through books as well as through interacting with others.23 Consequently, the NLB enjoyed an almost six-fold increase in the number of library visits, from around 5.5 million in 1995 to 31.2 million in 2004.24

The second decade
With the physical and technological infrastructure set up in the first decade, the NLB’s plans in its second decade and beyond include reaching out to underserved groups, facilitating readers in their self-improvement, developing next-generation libraries to become community spaces for self-sustaining programmes, as well as refining its digital library to keep pace with changing lifestyles and information needs.25

Besides reintroducing the mobile library service in 2008, the NLB also launched a number of large-scale campaigns during this decade, including READ! Singapore and the Book Exchange programme.26 More programmes have also been held at the public libraries’ programme zones in recent years.27

With more people turning to online means to access the NLB’s resources, the board has also been expanding the content in its digital library.28

Headquarters
NLB’s headquarters, together with the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library (LKCRL) and Central Public Library, has been housed at the National Library Building on Victoria Street since 2005.29

Physical libraries
National Library
The National Library is a reference and research library with statutory functions such as legal deposit and heritage preservation. Its collection is currently made accessible to the public through the LKCRL, which spans seven floors in the present 16-storey National Library Building. The LKCRL was formerly known as the National Reference Library, which was housed in the National Library Building on Stamford Road until its closure in 2004. The reference library took on its current name after moving to its present premises on Victoria Street, in recognition of the S$60-million donation from the Lee Foundation, which was established by Lee Kong Chian, to the NLB for the construction of its new premises.30

Public libraries
The public libraries are lending libraries with an extensive collection of books and audio-visual materials, as well as venues for a multitude of programmes and activities.31 The NLB currently has a network of 26 public libraries, including three regional libraries in Tampines, Woodlands and Jurong.32 The regional libraries are larger, and each has a reference section and a bigger collection compared with the other public libraries.33


On 22 March 1996, the first library in a shopping mall was opened at Jurong Point in Jurong West.34 Of the 26 public libraries currently, about half are located within shopping malls and three are niche libraries. The latter comprise library@orchard, library@esplanade and library@chinatown,35 library@orchard, targeted at young adults, is Singapore’s first lifestyle library in the city.36 It was first located within the Ngee Ann City shopping mall from 1999 to 2007, and then reopened in orchardgateway on 23 October 2014. library@orchard currently carries a collection focused on design, lifestyle and the applied arts.37 library@esplanade, Singapore’s first performing-arts library, was officially opened on 12 September 2002, while library@chinatown in Chinatown Point mall, which focuses on Chinese arts and culture, was unveiled on 31 January 2013.38

The world’s first green library for children, My Tree House, was opened on 31 May 2013 at the Central Public Library. Built on environmental principles informing its design and infrastructure, and incorporating the use of sustainable materials, its centrepiece is a treehouse with a canopy made from over 3,000 recycled plastic bottles collected from the public.39

The Queenstown Public Library, officially opened on 30 April 1970 by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, is currently the oldest public library in Singapore. In June 2014, it became the first library under the NLB that was gazetted for conservation by the Urban Redevelopment Authority.40

LLiBrary
Opened on 29 November 2014, the LLiBrary is a collaboration between the NLB and the Workforce Development Agency. Located at the Lifelong Learning Institute, which provides training and employment resources for workers, it is Singapore’s first public-accessible library focused on the professional development of working adults. The collection, mostly in English, covers areas such as career advancement, vocational guidance and industry-specific topics.41

Mobile library
Widely deployed in Singapore during the 1960s and 1970s, mobile libraries were phased out by 1991 with the opening of brick-and-mortar libraries. On 3 April 2008, the mobile library service was relaunched in the form of Molly, the Mobile Library – a bus equipped with books and library facilities – to bring library services to underserved communities such as orphanages, children’s homes, special education schools and welfare organisations.42 On 8 May 2014, smaller versions of Molly – known as mini Mollys – were launched to serve primarily kindergartens and childcare centres in Housing and Development Board (HDB) estates, as well as welfare homes with smaller carparks.43

Community Children’s Libraries
From the 1990s to early 2010s, Community Children’s Libraries (CCLs) could be found at the void decks of HDB flats.44 Jointly set up with the People’s Action Party Community Foundation, the 46 CCLs were targeted at children aged 10 and below. With the expansion of its network of public libraries that each features a children’s section, the CCLs were phased out by 2011.45

Digital library
The NLB’s digital presence began in 1995 through its website, NL.Line, as well as a subscription-based electronic information system known as TiARA (Timely Information for All, Relevant and Affordable). Content digitisation commenced in the early 2000s with books, which then expanded to cover a range of materials such as manuscripts, newspapers, music, film reels and photographs.46

Currently, the NLB’s digital collection includes books, magazines, newspapers and other online databases. The digital library also contains a range of resources, known as eResources, pertaining to the history, arts and music of Singapore.47

Keeping up with the evolving lifestyle of Singaporeans, the NLB has introduced several innovations that marry technology and users’ needs. In February 2009, the NLB launched Library in Your Pocket, a smartphone application that enables on-the-go access to library services and the digital library.48 Since 2014, library users can borrow materials through the app known as NLB Mobile by scanning the barcode affixed on the respective item using their mobile phones. From 2 February 2015 onwards, library users are required to login to myLibrary to check their library accounts, renew or reserve items online, and access the eResources.49

Programmes and exhibitions
The NLB’s public libraries have been organising a range of programmes and activities such as exhibitions, workshops, talks, storytelling sessions and performances for different segments of society.50 These programmes and activities help to engage communities, attract new users to the libraries as well as spark interest in reading among library users.51

After the move to the current National Library Building, the LKCRL has also been a venue for exhibitions to enhance knowledge accessibility for library users, as well as to draw researchers and library users to its collections. Zheng He & Maritime Asia, the National Library’s first large-scale exhibition, featured the maritime history of Singapore and the region. Singapore Literary Pioneers and From Books to Bytes: The Story of the National Library are two permanent exhibitions located within the building.52

The NLB has launched a number of campaigns to promote reading. These efforts include the annual nationwide initiative READ! Singapore, which is held over the course of about two months and features a series of programmes revolving around books, reading and related activities, as well as Book Exchange, which encourages public to exchange used books with other book lovers.

Other large-scale initiatives spearheaded by the NLB include kidsREAD, a nationwide event started in 2004 to promote a love for reading among children, particularly those from lower-income families;53 10,000 & More Fathers Reading!, an annual nationwide movement launched in 2007 to increase fathers’ involvement in their children’s literacy development;54 and the Singapore Memory Project, a whole-of-government, national project launched in 2011 to build a digital database of memories on Singapore by inviting Singaporeans to submit their personal memories and stories.55 On 23 October 2013, an information literacy campaign, S.U.R.E. (short for “Source, Understand, Research and Evaluate”), was launched to promote the importance of information searching and discernment to the general public.56

National Archives of Singapore
The NAS is responsible for the collection, preservation and management of Singapore’s public and private archival records.57 To achieve greater synergy in heritage preservation, the NAS – previously a department under the National Heritage Board – was transferred to the NLB in November 2012.58

Asian Film Archive
The Asian Film Archive (AFA) became a subsidiary of NLB on 1 December 2013. Established as an independent, non-profit entity in 2005 with the objective of preserving and promoting the appreciation of local and Asian cinema, the AFA has a collection of over 1,600 films. These include classic Malay films from the Cathay-Keris Studio, as well as productions by contemporary local filmmakers.59


Friends of the Library
To engage and involve the community, the NLB started the Friends of the Library initiative in 2001 to invite members of the public to become volunteers for its libraries. Currently, the day-to-day operations of library@chinatown are run by a pool of over 40 volunteers.60

Significant milestones
1 Sep 1995: NLB established as a statutory board.61
1996: Bookdrop service introduced.62
22 Mar 1996: The first library in a shopping mall opens in Jurong West.63
1998: Self-service borrowing machines installed in all public libraries.64
28 May 1998: Book Return @ Any Library service implemented.65
21 Oct 1999: library@orchard, Singapore’s first lifestyle library, officially opens at Ngee Ann City shopping mall.66
12 Sep 2002: library@esplanade, Singapore’s first performing-arts library, officially opens.67
23 Apr 2004: Launch of nationwide kidsREAD programme.68
2005: NLB’s digital library integrated with its corporate website www.nlb.gov.sg, replacing eLibraryHub.69
22 Jul 2005: National Library Building at Victoria Street opens to public.70
12 Nov 2005: National Library Building at Victoria Street is officially opened.71
24 May 2005: Launch of nationwide READ! Singapore programme.72
17 Jun 2007: Launch of nationwide 10,000 & More Fathers Reading! programme.73
3 Apr 2008: Relaunch of mobile library service, Molly, the Mobile Library.74
Feb 2009: Launch of smartphone application, Library in Your Pocket”75
25 Apr 2009: Launch of Book Exchange programme.76
2011: Launch of Singapore Memory Project.77
Nov 2012: NAS transfers to NLB.78
31 Jan 2013: library@chinatown opens.79
31 May 2013: My Tree House, the world’s first green library for children, opens.80
23 Oct 2013: Launch of S.U.R.E. campaign.81
1 Dec 2013: Asian Film Archive becomes a subsidiary of NLB.82
Jun 2014: Queenstown Public Library gazetted for conservation.83
23 Oct 2014: library@orchard reopens at orchardgateway.84
29 Nov 2014: LLiBrary, a collaboration between NLB and Workforce Development Agency, opens.85



Author

Cheryl Sim



References
1. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; National Library Board. (2015, January 7). About NLB. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/AboutNLB.aspx; National Library Board. (2015). e-Resources – National Library Board. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/index.aspx
2. Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 161. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; National Library Board. (2015, January 7). About public libraries. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/AboutPublicLibraries.aspx

3. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Ang, B. (2014, June 15). Jammin’ with books. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
4. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, pp. 37, 46, 48. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Cheong, K. (2013, October 24). S.U.R.E about this blog or not? Mr Kiasu can help. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
5. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, pp. 5–8. (Call no. RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Tyers, R. K. (1993). Ray Tyers’ Singapore: Then & now. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 63. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 TYE-[HIS])
6. National Library Board. (2014, August 28). History of National Library Singapore. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/HistoryofNationalLibrarySingapore.aspx; Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 18. (Call no. RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
7. Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, pp. 14–15. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 23. (Call no. RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
8. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
9. Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 100. (Call no. RSING 027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 5. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; National Library Board. (2014, August 28). History of National Library Singapore. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/HistoryofNationalLibrarySingapore.aspx
10. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
11. Kan, G. (1994, March 7). New-age public libraries with global reach planned. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB])
12. Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB]); Future of public library services to be reviewed. (1992, June 23). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Library 2000 Review Committee. (1994, March). Library 2000: Investing in a learning nation: Report of the Library 2000 Review Committee. Singapore: SNP Publishers under licence from Ministry of Information and the Arts, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 027.05957 SIN-[LIB])
14. Kan, G. (1994, March 7). New-age public libraries with global reach planned. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 161. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
15. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 161. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
16. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; National Library Board. (2014, August 28). National Library Board Act. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/NLBAct.aspx
17. National Library Board. (2014, August 28). National Library Board Act. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/NLBAct.aspx; Koh, B. S. (1996, July 4). More branches, larger collections. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
18. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB])
19. Koh, B. S. (1996, July 4). National Library to spend $1b over 8 years. The Straits Times, p. 1; Libraries for all in 8 years. (1996, July 3). The New paper, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]);Leong, W. K. (1998, November 12). Newer books in libraries draw readers. The Straits Times, p. 37. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 104. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
22. Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, pp. 26, 28, 161–163. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB])
23. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB]); Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 28. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB])
24. Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, pp. 3, 27. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB]); Making the library a bestseller. (2001, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 3. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Tom, K. (2005, July 24). Library to target info-deprived groups. The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
26. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
27. Ang, B. (2014, June 15). Jammin’ with books. The Straits Times pp. 4-5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Nanda, A. (2013, December 14). New chapter for library. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. Koh, B. S. (1996, July 4). More branches, larger collections. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; National Library Board. (2014, August 28). Visit us. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/VisitUs.aspx
30. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; National Library Board. (2014, August 28). National Library / Lee Kong Chian Reference Library. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/VisitUs/BranchDetails/tabid/140/bid/329/Default.aspx?branch=National+Library+%2f+Lee+Kong+Chian+Reference+Library; Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 5. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
31. National Library Board. (2009). Knowledge, imagination, possibility. Singapore: Author, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Johnston, R., et al. (2007). Re-inventing library services, continuity with change: Case study on the National Library Board. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 5. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 REI-[LIB])
32. National Library Board. (2015, January 7). About public libraries. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/AboutPublicLibraries.aspx
33. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 6. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
34. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; First shopping-centre library opens. (1996, March 23). The Straits Times, p. 30. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. National Library Board. (2014, August 28). Visit us. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/VisitUs.aspx; Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB]); Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
36. Kaur, K. (1999, October 23). Library at Orchard Rd a big hit. The Straits Times, p. 49. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
37. Huang, L. (2014, October 24). library@orchard scores with books and looks. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; National Library Board. (2015, January 29). library@orchard. Retrieved from NLB website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/Portals/0/library/gallery/Orchard/library@orchard%20-%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
38. Foong, W. W. (2002, September 19). 600 sign up as premium members. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Lim, L. K. (2013, January 31). New library opens today in Chinatown. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. National Library Board. (2013, August 6). My Tree House – Green library for kids information. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/labs/my-tree-house-green-library-for-kids-information/
40. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Seow, J. (2014, July 25). Happily ever after for Queenstown library. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
41. Ho, O. (2014, November 29). Library focused on helping workers here opens its doors. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; National Library Board. (2014, December 3). The LLiBrary. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/VisitUs/TheLLiBrary.aspx
42. Lim, L. K. (2012, February 25). Library on wheels moves with the times. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Selvaretnam, S. V. (2008, April 4). Library bus to reach out to young. The Straits Times, p. 43. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. National Library Board. (2014, May 8). Molly turns mini to reach more preschools in HDB estates [Press release]. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/News/tabid/102/articleid/234/category/Media%20Releases/parentId/121/year/2014/Default.aspx
44. Chang, A.-L. (1994, July 12). Void-deck libraries for children a big success. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, A. (2013). Community heritage series III: Void decks. Singapore: National Heritage Board, p. 9. Retrieved from National Heritage Board website: http://www.nhb.gov.sg/NHBPortal/content/conn/ucmnhb/path/Contribution%20Folders/NHBPortal/Contents/Education/E-Books/NHB_eBook_Void_Decks.pdf
45. Tan, A. (2007, March 16). Children’s library gets reprieve – for a year. The Straits Times, p. 42. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, A. (2013). Community heritage series III: Void decks. Singapore: National Heritage Board, p. 9. Retrieved from National Heritage Board website: http://www.nhb.gov.sg/NHBPortal/content/conn/ucmnhb/path/Contribution%20Folders/NHBPortal/Contents/Education/E-Books/NHB_eBook_Void_Decks.pdf
46. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
47. National Library Board. (2015). e-Resources – National Library Board. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/index.aspx
48. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Yap, S. (2008, December 4). Feel the power. The Straits Times, p. 47. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Cheong, K. (2014, September 24). Use your smartphone to borrow library books. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; National Library Board. (2014, September 19). Upgrade your library experience with myLibrary! Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/NewsAnnouncement/tabid/225/announcementId/76/Default.aspx#.VQEo83yUeuI
50. National Library Board. (2009). Knowledge, imagination, possibility. Singapore: Author, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
51. Seet, K. K. (2005). Knowledge, imagination, possibility: Singapore’s transformative library. Singapore: Published for National Library Board, Singapore by SNP Editions, p. 74. (Call no.: RSING q027.55957 SEE-[LIB]); Ang, B. (2014, June 15). Jammin’ with books. The Straits Times pp. 4-5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
52. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
53. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#; Yong, C. (2014, October 5). PM Lee, the storyteller. The Straits Times, pp. 10-11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
54. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). 10,000 & More Fathers Reading! Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/developing-libraries/major-library-events/10000--more-fathers-reading
55. About us. (n.d.). Retrieved from Singapore Memory website: http://www.singaporememory.sg/help-info/#content-about; iremeberSG. (2015). About. Retrieved from irememberSG website: http://www.iremember.sg/index.php/about/;  Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
56. Cheong, K. (2013, October 24). S.U.R.E about this blog or not? Mr Kiasu can help. The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; National Library Board. (2013, October 4). About S.U.R.E. campaign. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/sure/about-sure-campaign/
57. National Library Board. (2014, August 28). About National Archives. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/About/AboutNationalArchives.aspx

58. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
59. National Library Board. (2013, November 13). Asian Film Archive joins the National Library Board family [Press release]. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/News/tabid/102/articleid/244/category/Media%20Releases/parentId/121/year/2013/Default.aspx
60. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Lim, L. K. (2013, January 31). New library opens today in Chinatown. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
61. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
62. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 104. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
63. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
64. Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 104. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
65. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
66. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
67. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
68. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
69. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx; Azizah Sidek, et al. (Eds.). (2007). The people’s library: 50 years of national and public library services. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 111. (Call no.: RSING 027.55957 SIN-[LIB])
70. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
71. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
72. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
73. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). 10,000 & More Fathers Reading! Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/developing-libraries/major-library-events/10000--more-fathers-reading; Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
74. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
75. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
76. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2014, November 20). Milestones in libraries. Retrieved from Ministry of Communications and Information website: http://www.mci.gov.sg/web/department/libraries/milestones-in-libraries#
77. iremeberSG. (2015). About. Retrieved from irememberSG website: http://www.iremember.sg/index.php/about/
78. Gwee, J., & Neo, B. S. (2013, March). A library for the people: A case study of the National Library Board. Retrieved from Civil Service College website: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/A-Library-for-the-People-A-Case-Study-of-the-National-Library-Board.aspx
79. Lim, L. K. (2013, January 31). New library opens today in Chinatown. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
80. National Library Board. (2013, August 6). My Tree House – Green library for kids information. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/labs/my-tree-house-green-library-for-kids-information/
81. Cheong, K. (2013, October 24). S.U.R.E about this blog or not? Mr Kiasu can help. The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
82. National Library Board. (2013, November 13). Asian Film Archive joins the National Library Board family [Press release]. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/News/tabid/102/articleid/244/category/Media%20Releases/parentId/121/year/2013/Default.aspx
83. Seow, J. (2014, July 25). Happily ever after for Queenstown library. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
84. Seow, J. (2014, July 25). Happily ever after for Queenstown library. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
85. Ho, O. (2014, November 29). Library focused on helping workers here opens its doors. The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



Further resources
Dhansukhlal, J. (Ed.). (2009). Molly’s memories, milestones and moments: Celebrating mobile library services in Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board.
(Call no.: RSING 027.45957 MOL-[LIB])

Lim, R. (2005). Coming of age: Planting a new seed. Singapore: National Library Board.
(Call no.: RSING 028.9095957 LIM-[LIB])

National Library Board. (2007). Dr Tan Chin Nam: A man of vision, the knowledge difference. Singapore: Author.

(Call no.: RSING 027.55957 DOC-[LIB])





The information in this article is valid as at 27 March 2015 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Community and Social Services
Politics and Government
Organisations