Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city



Launched in 2007, the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (TEC) is the second flagship government-to-government project between Singapore and China following the China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park which started in 1994.1 Developed from scratch on 30 sq km of non-arable and water-scarce land, the TEC project entails building a township with eco-friendly features such as 100-percent green buildings, renewable energy and green transport.2 Comprising a range of developments including business parks and homes, the project aims to create a practical model of a sustainable city for future urbanisation efforts in China and other countries.3 Targeted for completion between 2018 and 2023, the TEC saw the completion of an eight-square-kilometre start-up area comprising housing, an eco-business park as well as essential facilities such as schools and shops in 2013.4

Background
Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in China have brought about increasing concerns over environmental issues such as energy shortage, air pollution and loss of biodiversity, and hence the Chinese government has been giving greater attention to sustainable development. It was against this backdrop that the project was mooted by Singapore’s then Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong when he met then Chinese premier Wen Jiabao on 25 April 2007 in Beijing. Wen agreed to Goh’s suggestion in principle and both countries have since then moved briskly to implement the idea.5

Site selection
At the outset, the Chinese government specified that the TEC should be developed on non-arable land in an area with water shortage and limited natural resources so as to “heighten the demonstrative effect” of the project.6

Four locations were shortlisted for the project: Tangshan city in the northern Hebei province; Baotou city in Inner Mongolia; Urumqi, the capital city of western Xinjiang province; and the Tianjin municipality.7

Taken into account considerations such as surrounding infrastructure, ease of accessibility and commercial viability, Tianjin was selected for the development of the eco-city. The selected site, 40 km from the Tianjin city centre and 150 km southeast of Beijing, is located within the Binhai New Area – a special economic zone and one of the fastest-growing regions in China.8

Prior to its development, the 30-square-kilometre TEC site comprised primarily saltpans, barren land and polluted waterbodies, including a 2.6-square-kilometre wastewater pond.9

The TEC’s development was projected to cost about S$9.7 billion.10

Establishment
On 18 November 2007, a framework agreement for Singapore and China to jointly develop the TEC was signed by Wen and Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. At the same time, a supplementary pact pertaining to the implementation aspects of the project was signed by Singapore’s then minister for national development, Mah Bow Tan, and China’s then construction minister, Wang Guangtao.11

Overseeing the TEC project is a joint steering council (JSC) co-chaired by Singapore’s Deputy Prime Minister Teo Chee Hean and China’s then Vice-Premier Wang Qishan. The role of the JSC includes charting the strategic direction of the eco-city and examining major policy issues related to the development of the project.12

While the TEC is a government-to-government project, its development is driven by the private sector to ensure its commercial viability.13 On 1 July 2008, an agreement was signed by Keppel Group and Tianjin TEDA Investment Holding Company on the formation of a joint-venture company equally owned by a Singapore consortium led by Keppel Corporation and a Chinese consortium led by TTIHC. Known as the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city Investment and Development Company Limited (SSTEC), the company serves as the eco-city’s master developer.14

On 28 September 2008, construction of the eco-city commenced with a ground-breaking ceremony officiated by Goh and Wen.15

Objectives and key characteristics of the TEC
Objectives
Targeted for completion over 10 to 15 years, the TEC is envisioned to be an environmentally friendly, economically vibrant and socially harmonious city.16 Underpinning this vision are three characteristics of the eco-city: practicable (adoption of affordable and commercially viable technologies), replicable (its principles and models applicable to other cities in China and the rest of the world) and scalable (can be adapted for developments of different scales).17

Planned to support a population of 350,000, it aims to be an integrated environment where residents can work, live, play and learn.18 The two cooperating governments also seek to create a practical model for sustainable development that meets the needs of an urbanising China, so as to guide Chinese cities struggling to balance rapid economic growth with environmental protection.19

Key characteristics
To reduce its carbon footprint, the TEC is planned to be a walkable, green city that promotes the use of public and non-motorised transport such as bicycles, as well as electric trams and hybrid cars. The TEC aims to have at least 90 percent of the residents commute via such means. This is to be achieved by locating residential and commercial developments close to either the main city centre or sub-centres, so that residents can live within easy access of their workplace and amenities. A light rail transit (LRT) system links major districts so as to reduce the need for owning private cars.20

Situated in a water-scarce region, harvested rainwater and recycled water from sewage treatment plants have been identified as non-traditional sources of water for the TEC. In addition, the eco-city aims to meet 20 percent of its energy requirement with renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy.21

The TEC’s development plan also includes an extensive amount of greenery and water networks, as well as the rehabilitation and transformation of a wastewater pond into a clean lake. The waterbodies are to be linked and cleaned up to enhance the ecological system, as well as to provide an environment conducive for waterfront developments and serve as a venue for water-based recreational activities.22

For residential projects, about 20 percent of homes in the TEC will be subsidised public housing. Modelled after Singapore’s public-housing estates where neighbourhood communities comprising different ethnic groups and professions live together, the eco-city has positioned itself as a model of social inclusivity and harmonious living where people from all walks of life coexist.23 In addition, the TEC seeks to attract residents who share the vision of an eco-city and will live according to its principles, which include energy efficiency and resource conservation.24

All buildings in the TEC are required to comply with the Green Building Evaluation Standards, a benchmark jointly developed by Singapore and China for the eco-city.25

Developments
Basic infrastructure, housing and amenities
The earliest stages of the eco-city’s construction entailed the development of basic infrastructure such as roads and energy sources, as well as tasks like landscaping and cleaning up of polluted waters.26

Eco-friendly technologies deployed in the TEC include generation of solar and wind energy using solar panels and wind turbines; the city’s street lamps and electricity demand by households are met through these sources.27 

On 14 October 2009, a ground-breaking ceremony was held for the TEC’s first public-housing project, which comprises environmentally friendly homes for China’s low-income citizens.28 Modelled after Singapore’s public-housing estates, the 569-unit project was launched for sale in March 2012. Ready for occupancy some three months later in June, about 100 families had moved into the estate by September 2012.29

On 27 November 2009, Singapore’s Keppel Group became the first foreign private property developer to break ground and commence construction for its residential project in the TEC.30

As at October 2014, some 15,000 residents have moved into the TEC.31 Amenities such as schools and retail outlets have also commenced operations.32

Business investments, infrastructure and incentives
The TEC acquired its first business partner on 22 January 2009 when it signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Indian-owned Sembawang Engineers and Constructors to study the feasibility of building a S$1.5-billion solar polysilicon production plant in the eco-city.33 In the same year, contracts for a number of key property development projects were also inked. These include a S$2.1-billion, 180-hectare integrated project by China’s Shimao Property Holdings comprising residential and commercial developments and a public park, as well as another integrated development of similar value by Taiwan’s Farglory Group on 100 ha of land.34

On 3 June 2009, the TEC’s broke ground for the first eco-business park. The park’s target clients include clean-technology companies, firms engaged in green research and development, as well as those with low carbon footprint and offering high-value-added services such as business-process outsourcing.35 In 2013, the business park’s first development, the Landmark Building, was completed.36

On 1 December 2009, the SSTEC signed an MOU with Samsung C&T Corporation to develop a green central business district with eco-friendly offices in the TEC.37 Then on 30 December 2009, the construction of an eco-industrial park in the TEC began. The eco-industrial park, which seeks to attract manufacturing companies from green business clusters such as clean energy, green building and clean waste management, received its first factory tenants on 17 February 2012.38

As at October 2014, about 1,300 companies have set up operations in the TEC.39

To attract Singapore companies to establish a presence in the TEC, two assistance programmes have been introduced by the International Enterprise Singapore, in addition to the tax incentives offered by China. The first programme was launched in January 2011, and it provides a grant of up to S$150,000 per eligible company to help defray expenses such as office rental and staff training. The second programme, launched in March 2012, provides support for business development activities such as feasibility studies and test-bedding of new solutions and technologies.40

Timeline
25 Apr 2007: Wen Jiabao and Goh Chok Tong agree to jointly develop an eco-city in China.41
18 Nov 2007:
Singapore and China sign a framework agreement on the joint development of the TEC.42

1 Jul 2008: Agreement on the establishment of a 50–50 joint-venture company to serve as the TEC’s master developer is signed by Keppel Group and Tianjin TEDA Investment Holding Company.43
28 Sep 2008: Ground-breaking ceremony for the TEC.44
22 Jan 2009: TEC signs on its first business partner, Sembawang Engineers and Constructors.45
3 Jun 2009: Ground-breaking ceremony for the TEC’s first eco-business park.46
14 Oct 2009: Ground-breaking ceremony for the TEC’s first public-housing project.47
27 Nov 2009: Ground-breaking ceremony for the residential project by the TEC’s first foreign property developer.48
30 Dec 2009: Construction of the eco-industrial park begins.49
17 Feb 2012: Eco-industrial park receives its first factory tenants.50
2013: 8-square-kilometre start-up area completed.51
2013: Eco-business park’s flagship Landmark Building completed.52



Author
Cheryl Sim



References
1. International Enterprise Singapore. (2014, September 5). Overview of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. Retrieved from International Enterprise Singapore website: http://www.iesingapore.gov.sg/Content-Store/Industrial-Parks-and-Projects/Overview-of-the-Sino-Singapore-Tianjin-Eco-City-project; Ng, I. (1999, July 10). Suzhou project ‘more ambitious than thought’. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384; Chua, C. H. (2008, May 7). $9.7b price tag for landmark Tianjin eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Ng, G. (2009, December 27). Rumblings in Tianjin Eco-City. The Straits Times, p. 31. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
3. Tay, M. (2008, May 27). MTI deputy secretary to head Tianjin Eco-City. The Straits Times, p. 40. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Chan, F. (2009, July 2). Tianjin Eco-City in tie-up to develop $2b project. The Straits Times, p. 38. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Vince, G. (2012, May 3). China’s eco-cities: Sustainable urban living in Tianjin. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120503-sustainable-cities-on-the-rise
4. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384; Chang, R. (2014, October 25). Other key joint projects. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306; Ng, G. (2011, June 14). Top S’pore official in Eco-City project to live there. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
5. Chen, G., & Zhao, L. (2014). Translating concept into practice: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. In S.-H. Saw & J. Wong (Eds.), Advancing Singapore-China economic relations (pp. 94–125). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 94, 108. (Call no.: RSING 337.5957051 ADV); Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm; Quek, T. (2007, April 26). S’pore, China to jointly develop an ‘eco-city’. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384
7. Quek, T. (2007, November 22). How Tianjin won tough fight to be an eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
8. Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm; Quek, T. (2008, September 2008). SM Goh very excited about eco-city plan. The Straits Times, p. 25. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
10. Chua, C. H. (2008, May 7). $9.7b price tag for landmark Tianjin eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Goh, S. N. (2007, November 19). S’pore-China ties hit new heights with eco-city pact. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
12. United Nations Environment Programme. (2013, March). The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city: A practical model for sustainable development. Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme website: http://www.unep.org/chinese/south-south-cooperation/case/casefiles.aspx?csno=114; Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Key collaboration areas. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/col_overview.htm; Chen, G., & Zhao, L. (2014). Translating concept into practice: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. In S.-H. Saw & J. Wong (Eds.), Advancing Singapore-China economic relations (pp. 94–125). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING 337.5957051 ADV)
13. United Nations Environment Programme. (2013, March). The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city: A practical model for sustainable development. Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme website: http://www.unep.org/chinese/south-south-cooperation/case/casefiles.aspx?csno=114; Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Key collaboration areas. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/col_overview.htm
14. Goh, C. B. (n.d.). Developing a city of the future: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, p. 6. Retrieved from Singapore International Water Week website: http://www.siww.com.sg/pdf/08_Developing_a_city_of_the_future_Sino_singapore_Tianjin_Eco_city.pdf; Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Key collaboration areas. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/col_overview.htm; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2008, July 1). Joint venture to jointly develop eco-city in Tianjin, the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) [Press release]. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/news_item.aspx?sid=1805
15. Quek, T. (2008, September 29). Top leaders from Singapore and Beijing break ground for eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; International Enterprise Singapore. (2014, September 5). Overview of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. Retrieved from International Enterprise Singapore website: http://www.iesingapore.gov.sg/Content-Store/Industrial-Parks-and-Projects/Overview-of-the-Sino-Singapore-Tianjin-Eco-City-project
16. United Nations Environment Programme. (2013, March). The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city: A practical model for sustainable development. Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme website: http://www.unep.org/chinese/south-south-cooperation/case/casefiles.aspx?csno=114; Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
17. Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
18. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Sustainability: Showcase: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=3670; United Nations Environment Programme. (2013, March). The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city: A practical model for sustainable development. Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme website: http://www.unep.org/chinese/south-south-cooperation/case/casefiles.aspx?csno=114
19. Quek, T. (2007, November 22). How Tianjin won tough fight to be an eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Sustainability: Showcase: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=3670; United Nations Environment Programme. (2013, March). The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city: A practical model for sustainable development. Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme website: http://www.unep.org/chinese/south-south-cooperation/case/casefiles.aspx?csno=114
20. Ng, G. (2011, June 14). Top S’pore official in eco-city project to live there. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384; Ng, G. (2010, August 14). LRT may be a ‘make or break’ factor in Tianjin. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
21. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Sustainability: Showcase: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=3670
22. Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Master plan. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_masterplan.htm; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384
23. Cheam, J. (2008, April 17). HDB-style living in Tianjin eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Chen, G., & Zhao, L. (2014). Translating concept into practice: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. In S.-H. Saw & J. Wong (Eds.), Advancing Singapore-China economic relations (pp. 94–125). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 115. (Call no.: RSING 337.5957051 ADV); Vince, G. (2012, May 3). China’s eco-cities: Sustainable urban living in Tianjin. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120503-sustainable-cities-on-the-rise
24. Quek, T. (2008, February 1). ‘In 5 years, there’ll be houses, offices, roads, parks here’. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Our businesses: Current landmark projects: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=4384
26. Devadas, D. (2011, January 8). Keen on Tianjin Eco-city? Here’s help for you. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Vince, G. (2012, May 3). China’s eco-cities: Sustainable urban living in Tianjin. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120503-sustainable-cities-on-the-rise
27. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2010). Sustainability: Showcase: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/content.aspx?sid=3670
28. Ng, G. (2009, October 15). Eco friendly homes for Tianjin. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
29. Ng, G. (2012, September 15). Clone of HDB town in Tianjin Eco-city. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Social development. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/col_social.htm
30. Keppel starts eco-city project. (2009, November 28). The Straits Times, p. 48. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
31. Chang, R. (2014, October 25). Other key joint projects. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
32. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
33. Peh, S. H. (2009, January 23). Tianjin Eco-city gets first partner. The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. Chan, F. (2009, July 2). Tianjin Eco-City in tie-up to develop $2b project. The Straits Times, p. 38. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Cheam, J. (2009, July 14). Tianjin eco-city inks $644m deal. The Straits Times, p. 30. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2009, June 3). Tianjin Eco-City to develop first business park for eco-businesses [Press release]. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/news_item.aspx?sid=2022
36. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306; Jurong International. (n.d.). Portfolio: Tianjin Eco-city Landmark Building. Retrieved from Jurong International website: http://www.jurong.com/index.php?option=com_portfolio&task=detail&id=124&Itemid=65
37. Chen, G., & Zhao, L. (2014). Translating concept into practice: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. In S.-H. Saw & J. Wong (Eds.), Advancing Singapore-China economic relations (pp. 94–125). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 116. (Call no.: RSING 337.5957051 ADV); Ng, G. (2009, December 27). Rumblings in Tianjin Eco-City. The Straits Times, p. 31. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Chen, G., & Zhao, L. (2014). Translating concept into practice: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. In S.-H. Saw & J. Wong (Eds.), Advancing Singapore-China economic relations (pp. 94–125). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 117. (Call no.: RSING 337.5957051 ADV); Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
39. Chang, R. (2014, October 25). Other key joint projects. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
40. International Enterprise Singapore. (2014, September 5). Overview of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city project. Retrieved from International Enterprise Singapore website: http://www.iesingapore.gov.sg/Content-Store/Industrial-Parks-and-Projects/Overview-of-the-Sino-Singapore-Tianjin-Eco-City-project; Devadas, D. (2011, January 8). Keen on Tianjin Eco-city? Here’s help for you. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
41. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306; Quek, T. (2007, April 26). S’pore, China to jointly develop an ‘eco-city’. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
42. Government of Singapore. (2014, October 1). Introduction. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_intro.htm
43. Goh, C. B. (n.d.). Developing a city of the future: Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, p. 6. Retrieved from Singapore International Water Week website: http://www.siww.com.sg/pdf/08_Developing_a_city_of_the_future_Sino_singapore_Tianjin_Eco_city.pdf; Government of Singapore. (2014, September 19). Key collaboration areas. Retrieved from Tianjin Eco-city website: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/col_overview.htm; Keppel Corporation Limited. (2008, July 1). Joint venture to jointly develop eco-city in Tianjin, the People’s Republic of China (‘PRC’) [Press release]. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/news_item.aspx?sid=1805
44. Quek, T. (2008, September 29). Top leaders from Singapore and Beijing break ground for eco-city. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
45. Peh, S. H. (2009, January 23). Tianjin Eco-city gets first partner. The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Keppel Corporation Limited. (2009, June 3). Tianjin Eco-City to develop first business park for eco-businesses [Press release]. Retrieved from Keppel Corporation website: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/news_item.aspx?sid=2022
47. Ng, G. (2009, October 15). Eco friendly homes for Tianjin. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
48. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
49. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
50. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306
51. Chang, R. (2014, October 25). Other key joint projects. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
52. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd. (2014). Milestones. Retrieved from Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Co., Ltd website: http://www.tianjineco-city.com/en/iRightPic.aspx?column_id=10306




Further resources
Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City: Transforming communities for generations. (2008). Singapore: Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment Holdings Pte Ltd.
(Call no.: RSING 711.40951154 SIN)

张立博. (主编). [Zhang, L. (Ed.).]. (2013). 中新天津生城园林景观设计 [Zhong Xin Tianjin sheng tai cheng yuan lin jing guan she ji]. 上海:上海科学技术出版社.
(Call no.: Chinese RART 712.0951154 ZXT)

张立博. (主编). [Zhang, L. (Ed.).]. (2013). 中新天津生态城园林施工技术与管理. [Zhong Xin Tianjin sheng tai cheng yuan lin shi gong ji shu yu guan li]. 上海:上海科学技术出版社.
(Call no.: Chinese RART 711.40951154 ZXT)



The information in this article is valid as at 11 February 2015 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

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