People's Action Party: Post-independence years


Established on 21 November 1954, the People’s Action Party (PAP) has been the ruling political party in Singapore since the city-state became an independent nation in 1965.1 During the early years of independence, national survival and nation-building were the foremost concerns of the PAP government. At the time, Singapore was plagued by a series of acute problems including over-population, unemployment, housing shortage and racial tension.2 Led by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, the PAP government implemented a range of economic and social policies to address the issues and was able to overcome the situation with remarkable success.3 By constantly fielding new candidates for each general election and recruiting new members, the PAP maintains a systematic self-renewal process at all levels.4 In 1992, Lee Kuan Yew was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong as the party’s secretary-general, who was then succeeded by Lee Hsien Loong in 2004.5

Key struggles in the early decades
When Singapore attained self-government in 1959, unemployment was widespread and its population growth rate was one of the highest in the world.6

At the time of independence, Singapore’s economy was suffering. Trade with Indonesia, a key trading partner, was significantly reduced as a result of the Indonesian-Malaysian Konfrontasi, which lasted from 1963 to 1966. Another setback for the economy was the withdrawal of British military forces from Singapore between 1968 and 1971.7 Prior to the withdrawal, 10 percent of the local labour force were employed by the British, and British military expenditure had accounted for some 20 percent of Singapore’s gross domestic product (GDP).8

The lack of proper housing was another pressing issue. The majority of the population was living in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions, and Singapore’s urban district then was one of the world’s most congested slums.9

Ethnic tension was also a key challenge in Singapore, having experienced outbreaks of ethnic violence such as the Maria Hertogh riots in 1950 and the communal clashes of 1964.10 In addition, with a long history of the predominance of transient migrants, the majority of the Singapore population possessed little sense of belonging to the new nation.11

Overcoming early challenges and nation-building
The PAP had begun to address the pressing domestic issues such as unemployment and housing after it formed the government of the new self-governing state of Singapore in 1959.12 Following Singapore’s unexpected independence, the PAP government was quick to further develop and implement a host of economic and social policies so as to build up the new nation and to ensure the country’s long-term economic and social survival.13

Economic policies
When the PAP government came into power in 1959, the immediate economic task it undertook was industrialisation. The objectives were to reduce unemployment and Singapore’s reliance on the declining entrepôt trade. The Economic Development Board was established in 1961 to promote industrial development.14

After Singapore’s separation from Malaysia, the prospect of adopting a common market with Malaysia ended.15 Given Singapore’s lack of natural resources and a domestic market too small to spur domestic industrial production, the PAP government then adopted an export-orientated development strategy, which entailed attracting multinational corporations (MNCs) to establish a sizeable manufacturing base in Singapore.16 The strategy proved successful, as the country registered strong GDP growth thereafter and achieved nearly full employment by the mid-1970s.17 Wages and the standard of living also rose correspondingly.18

Singapore’s industrialisation programme began with labour-intensive factories producing goods such as garments, textiles and toys, as well as with technology-intensive investments such as oil refineries.19 In the 1970s, the manufacturing sector evolved and attracted higher-end investments such as those from the electronics sector. The MNCs also began to carry out research and development activities in Singapore.20 By the 1990s, the services sector such as finance and business services had also developed into a pillar of the economy. This resulted in a diversification of Singapore’s economic structure, with the city-state hosting a wide range of businesses.21

Housing
On 1 February 1960, the PAP government established the Housing and Development Board (HDB) to rectify the severe housing shortage through large-scale public-housing programmes.22 With the objective of clearing out the central slum areas, HDB had built 53,000 new flats by the end of 1965 to house low-income families. After Singapore’s independence, the PAP government shifted its focus from rehousing families previously living in slums to developing a home-owning society, in a bid to foster feelings of commitment and loyalty to the country.23

To make homeownership affordable, property buyers were allowed to make down payments and housing loan repayments using their savings in the Central Provident Fund from 1968 onwards.24 By the 1990s, over 80 percent of the Singapore population were living in HDB flats. While the earliest public housing comprised basic one- to three-room flats, the HDB began building bigger and better-designed flats with improved amenities by the 1970s – a response to homeowners’ expectations that went beyond mere shelter.25

Multiracialism
Following Singapore’s independence, maintaining racial harmony and stable intra-societal relations were crucial for the peace and development of the new nation. To manage Singapore’s ethnic diversity, a key social policy established by the PAP government was multiracialism.26 The policy entails recognising all ethnic groups as distinct and of equal status in terms of language, religion and culture, and it is backed by strong sanctions against the use of inflammatory racial or religious utterances.27 The PAP government also established Malay, Mandarin and Tamil – languages of the three major ethnic groups in Singapore – as the country’s official languages. In addition, English was also designated as an official language to serve as the common language of communication among Singaporeans and with the rest of the world.28

Education
Since Singapore’s independence in 1965, the PAP government has introduced a series of education policies to support national integration and nation-building.29 To meet the needs of the country’s industrial development drive at the time, primary education was expanded and subsidised for all Singaporeans. All students followed a similar education structure, and the focus was on the teaching of languages, science, mathematics, technical skills and moral values. Large expenditures were also made by the PAP government to improve the education infrastructure and quality of teachers.30

The PAP introduced the bilingual policy into primary and secondary levels in 1966. All children were required to learn two languages: English as the first language so that Singaporeans would be equipped with better opportunities in the global economy, and the mother tongue to preserve each ethnic group’s cultural and language distinctions. The policy also follows from the aforementioned principle of multiracialism.31

Population
As Singapore was one of the most densely populated countries in the world at the time of independence, bringing population growth under control was deemed necessary for the country’s economic progress. Antinatalist measures introduced by the PAP government starting from 1965 to promote two-child families include monetary incentives and disincentives, family planning services and large-scale public campaigns. The measures were highly successful: The total fertility rate fell below the replacement level in 1977 and continued declining from then on. Consequently, the problem of a declining population base emerged.32 In 1987, the government announced the shift towards a pronatalist stance: Families were encouraged to have three or more children if they could afford it.33

The PAP government also imposed tight immigration restrictions until the 1980s. The restrictions were relaxed thereafter, as the government sought to augment the local population with new immigrants in order to increase the talent pool and workforce.34

Social campaigns
Since the PAP government came into power in 1959, national campaigns have been frequently used as an instrument for policy implementation and to change the attitudes and behaviour of Singaporeans.35 Among the earlier campaigns were the campaign against yellow culture, which restricted decadent behaviours such as gambling, opium-smoking and pornography,36 the “Keep Singapore Clean” campaign to involve every citizen in maintaining a clean and healthy Singapore,37 the “Use Your Hands” campaign to develop positive attitudes towards manual work, given the general preference towards white-collar jobs,38 as well as the National Courtesy Campaign and the Speak Mandarin Campaign that were both launched in 1979.39

Governance
Meritocracy is a key governing principle adopted by the PAP government.40 It is applied to the civil service and armed forces, government-linked companies and education. The PAP leaders believe that meritocracy helps the brightest students rise to the top and contributes to the establishment of a corrupt-free and efficient civil service. Such a system of rewards and opportunities is seen to be crucial in maintaining social harmony in Singapore’s multiracial society.41

Besides meritocracy, the PAP leaders also place strong emphasis on maintaining a clean and upright civil service, free from abuse and corruption. This has been achieved through measures such as offering more competitive salaries, increasing the severity of penalty for corrupt behaviour and strengthening the powers of the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau.42

PAP’s performance in the general elections
The PAP has won either all or a majority of seats in every general election after Singapore’s independence, and the party’s political legitimacy has been largely based on its successful management of the city-state’s economy through the aforementioned economic policies.43

In 1968, the PAP contested all 58 seats in the first general election held after Singapore’s independence following its separation from the Federation of Malaysia.44 The party brought in 18 new candidates during the election, including academics and professionals such as doctors and lawyers.45 With the election fought against the backdrop of the withdrawal of British military forces by 1971 and thus the potential loss of jobs, the PAP sought a mandate from the people to resolve the problem of unemployment and to improve living conditions.46 The party was returned to power on nomination day as 51 seats were uncontested.47 It also won all the seven contested seats and 84.4 percent of the total votes cast – the highest in the party’s history.48

The PAP continued to win all seats during the next three general elections from 1972 to 1980.49 In the 1972 general election, the party garnered 69 percent of the votes cast. It fielded 11 new candidates, including future president Ong Teng Cheong, and its campaign slogan was “For a Better Future, Vote PAP”.50 The PAP’s vote share increased to 72.4 percent in the 1976 general election with ”Your Future is Safe with PAP” as the party’s campaign slogan, and Goh Chok Tong was one of the new candidates fielded.51 The PAP won the following 1980 general election with the campaign slogan “Progress with PAP”, and enjoyed a further increase in vote share to 75.6 percent.52

The PAP’s monopoly of parliament ended when it lost the seat of Anson in the October 1981 by-election. C. V. Devan Nair had resigned from his Anson ward to become Singapore’s third president. Lawyer J. B. Jeyaretnam of the Workers’ Party (WP) contested the seat and won with 51.9 percent of the votes.53 Then in the 1984 general election, the PAP lost two of the 79 seats and its share of total votes cast fell to 62.9 percent. Chiam See Tong of the Singapore Democratic Party won the Potong Pasir seat for the first time, while Jeyaretnam was returned in Anson.54 Even though the PAP’s monopoly in the parliament ended, the party has still retained a majority of seats in every general election since then.55

In the latest general election held in 2011, the PAP won 81 out of 87 seats. However, the party’s vote share of 60.1 percent was the lowest since Singapore’s independence, and it lost a group representation constituency for the first time. The results prompted a performance review by the PAP, which led to a number of major initiatives. These include a re-examination and refinement of government policies as well as an overhaul of its outreach strategy to strengthen its connection with the people.56

From 2012 to 2013, two by-elections were held, and the PAP lost both elections to the WP.57

Leadership changes
Lee Kuan Yew served as the secretary-general of the PAP’s Central Executive Committee (CEC) – its highest decision-making body – for some 38 years, and as Singapore’s prime minister for 31 years. He was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong as the prime minister on 28 November 1990 and the CEC’s secretary-general in 1992.58

The PAP is currently led by Lee Hsien Loong, who succeeded Goh Chok Tong as prime minister on 12 August 2004 and, later the same year, as the CEC’s secretary-general.59

Headquarters
The PAP’s headquarters (HQ) was first located in a shophouse on Neil Road from 1955 to 1957. It then shifted several times before moving to Orchard Road in 1965, where it stayed for over a decade. Since then, the party HQ has been located in a black-and-white bungalow on Napier Road (1978–1986), followed by the SLF Building on Thomson Road (1986–1996) before moving to its current premises at New Upper Changi Road in 1996. The current PAP HQ is located within the PAP Community Foundation Building. Occupying a small office on the building’s ground floor, it is a deliberate decision by the party to keep its HQ simple.60

Party structure
Management
The PAP is headed by the CEC, below which is the HQ executive committee that oversees the party’s organisational and administrative matters.61

Branches
The first PAP branch office was set up in Tanjong Pagar; by the party’s first anniversary, it had set up five branches. As of 2014, the party has a network of 87 branches, covering every electoral constituency in Singapore.62

In the early days, the PAP branches organised activities such as language classes and dance sessions, and the members were mostly blue-collar workers. Currently, the PAP branches are involved in managing grassroot activities during election campaigns, as well as organising the weekly meet-the-people sessions conducted by the PAP members of parliament. The party members comprise people from different backgrounds including professionals and blue-collar workers.63

Young PAP
Established on 27 September 1986 and with Lee Hsien Loong appointed as its first chairman, the Young PAP was initially named PAP Youth Wing. The formation of a youth wing was mooted by Goh Chok Tong, then first deputy prime minister, with the objective of recruiting young Singaporeans into the PAP.64

In 1993, the PAP Youth Wing was renamed Young PAP and its age limit was increased from 35 to 40.65

To reach out to young female Singaporeans, the Young PAP Women was launched as part of the Young PAP on 26 April 2005.66

Women’s Wing
The PAP Women’s Wing was officially inaugurated on 2 July 1989 with the aim of increasing women’s participation in the social, economic and political developments of Singapore.67 The group’s activities include uplifting underprivileged women; increasing the representation of women in the workforce and politics; promotion of marriage, parenthood and work-life balance practices; as well as advocacy of policies on women’s issues.68

The PAP Women’s Wing has a predecessor known as the PAP Women’s League. Formed in 1956 by politician Chan Choy Siong, the league played an instrumental role in the passing of the Women’s Charter in 1961. However, due to the absence of female members of parliament in the 1970s, the PAP Women’s League was dissolved in 1975.69

PAP Community Foundation
Set up in May 1986, the PAP Community Foundation (PCF) is a non-political charitable organisation that runs social, educational and welfare activities for the community. Besides being a key kindergarten operator in Singapore, the PCF also helps poorer families by providing financial assistance – by means such as the Headstart Fund – for tuition and other educational needs.70

During the early 1960s, several PAP branches started low-cost kindergartens to help children in rural areas prepare for entry into primary schools, as well as to gain their parents’ support for the PAP. As the classes became popular, the network of PAP kindergartens also expanded over time. The kindergartens were run by the PAP branches before the PCF was established.71

Petir
In April 1956, the PAP launched the first issue of its publication, Petir, which serves as a communication channel between its leaders and members on the party’s policies and programmes.72

Before it settled on the magazine look in the late 1980s, Petir had taken on different formats, including a tabloid and broadsheet.73 The party organ has also evolved from a weekly newsletter to a bimonthly magazine in the 1990s and then a quarterly magazine in 2013.74

Second and third generations of PAP leaders
The second generation of PAP leaders include Goh Chok Tong, Lee Hsien Loong, Ong Teng Cheong, Tony Tan, S. Dhanabalan, Ahmad Mattar, Wong Kan Seng, Yeo Ning Hong and S. Jayakumar.75 They were then succeeded by the third-generation leaders including Teo Chee Hean, George Yeo, Lim Hng Kiang, Lim Boon Heng, Lim Swee Say, Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Ng Eng Hen, Khaw Boon Wan, Vivian Balakrishnan, Raymond Lim and Gan Kim Yong.76

Timeline: Post-independence
9 Aug 1965: Singapore separates from Malaysia and becomes an independent and sovereign state.77
13 Apr 1968:
PAP wins 84.4 percent of votes and all 58 seats in the first general election after Singapore’s independence.78

May 1986: PAP Community Foundation is established.79
27 Sep 1986: PAP Youth Wing (now known as Young PAP) is established.80
2 Jul 1989: PAP Women’s Wing is inaugurated.81
28 Nov 1990: Goh Chok Tong succeeds Lee Kuan Yew as prime minister of Singapore.82
2 Dec 1992: Goh succeeds Lee Kuan Yew as secretary-general of PAP’s CEC.83
12 Aug 2004: Lee Hsien Loong succeeds Goh as prime minister of Singapore.84
2 Dec 2004: Lee Hsien Loong succeeds Goh as secretary-general of PAP’s CEC.85
26 Apr 2005: Young PAP Women is launched.86
7 Nov 2014: PAP celebrates its 60th anniversary.87



Author
Cheryl Sim



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37. The public must co-operate. (1968, October 1). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
38. Use your hands campaign again. (1978, May 6). The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; ‘Use your hands drive a good idea’. (1976, April 27). The Straits Times, p. 17. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Towards a polite society. (1979, June 2). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Lee’s plea: Use Mandarin. (1979, September 8). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
40. National Library Board & National Archives of Singapore. (2007). Singapore: The first ten years of independence, 1965 to 1975. Singapore: National Library Board and National Archives of Singapore, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 959.5705 SIN)
41. Mauzy, D. K., & Milne, R. S. (2002). Singapore politics under the People’s Action Party. London; New York: Routledge, pp. 55–56. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 MAU); Singh, B. (2012). Politics and governance in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, p. 117. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 SIN)
42. Singh, B. (2012). Politics and governance in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, pp. 61–62. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 SIN); Quah, J. S. T. (1984). The public bureaucracy in Singapore, 1959–1984. In P. S. You, & C. Y. Lim (Eds.), Singapore: Twenty-five years of development (pp. 288–314). Singapore: Nan Yang Xing Zhou Lianhe Zaobao, p. 296. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
43. Singh, B. (2012). Politics and governance in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, pp. 182–189. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 SIN); Chia, S. Y. (2007). Singapore. In Chowdhury, A., & Iyanatul Islam (Eds.), Handbook on the Northeast and Southeast Asian economies (pp. 74–92). Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, p. 74. (Call no.: RBUS 330.95 HAN)
44. Pugalenthi, S. R. (1996). Elections in Singapore. Singapore: VJ Times, p. 106. (Call no.: RSING 324.63095957 PUG); People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
45. Mauzy, D. K., & Milne, R. S. (2002). Singapore politics under the People’s Action Party. London; New York: Routledge, p. 47. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 MAU); Activists in action. (2014, July). Petir, 28–30. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/Petir_July_2014_hr.pdf
46. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
47. Pugalenthi, S. R. (1996). Elections in Singapore. Singapore: VJ Times, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING 324.63095957 PUG)
48. Chandran, R., et al. (1968, April 14). The PAP seven sweep to victory. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 100. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
49. Singh, B. (2012). Politics and governance in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, p. 185. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 SIN)
50. 760,472 people (93.55 per cent) voted in the general election. (1972, September 4). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Where the PAP’s new 11 will stand. (1972, August 18). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
51. Fong, L. (1976, December 24). 69 to nothing. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 59. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
52. 75-0: It’s another clean sweep. (1980, December 24). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
53. Fong, L., et al. (1981, November 1). Jeyaretnam takes Anson. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 64. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
54. PAP wins all but two. (1984, December 23). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
55. Singh, B. (2012). Politics and governance in Singapore: An introduction. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, pp. 187–189. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 SIN)
56. Zuraidah Ibrahim. (2011, May 8). 81–6. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Lee, H. L. (2011, July–August). The road ahead. Petir, 6–7. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/petir_jul_aug_2011.pdf; Strategies, shortcomings & solutions. (2012, January–February). Petir, 16–18. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/petir_jan_feb_2012.pdf
57. Lim, L. (2012, May 27). WP wins 62.1%. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Au Yong, J. (2013, January 27). WP sweeps Punggol East with 54.5%. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva.
58. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, pp. 24, 87. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO); People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 59. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR); PM Goh takes over as PAP secretary-general. (1992, December 4). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
59. People’s Action Party. (2014). Party constitution: About PAP. Retrieved from People’s Action Party website: https://www.pap.org.sg/about-pap/party-constitution; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
60. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 65. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR); Party housing. (2014, April). Petir, 24–25. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/Petir_April_2014_LC_edited2.pdf; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 60. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
61. Mauzy, D. K., & Milne, R. S. (2002). Singapore politics under the People’s Action Party. London; New York: Routledge, p. 40. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 MAU); People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 59. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
62. Party branches. (2014, July). Petir, 22–25. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/Petir_July_2014_hr.pdf
63. Mauzy, D. K., & Milne, R. S. (2002). Singapore politics under the People’s Action Party. London; New York: Routledge, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 320.95957 MAU); Party branches. (2014, July). Petir, 22–25. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/Petir_July_2014_hr.pdf; People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 52. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
64. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 153. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR); YP plans party by the bay. (2005, September–October). Petir, 45. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P); People’s Action Party. (2014). Who’s who: Young PAP. Retrieved from People’s Action Party website: https://www.pap.org.sg/about-pap/whos-who/young-pap
65. YP plans party by the bay. (2005, September–October). Petir, 45. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P)
66. YP plans party by the bay. (2005, September–October). Petir, 45. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P); Lee, S. (2005, May–June). Vote of support for YPW. Petir, 20–23. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P)
67. People’s Action Party. (2014). Who’s who: PAP Women’s Wing. Retrieved from People’s Action Party website: https://www.pap.org.sg/about-pap/whos-who/womens-wing; People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 153. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
68. Chong, K. P. (2011, September–October). WW to pursue policy advocacy. Petir, 18–19. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/petir_sept_oct_2011.pdf
69. Tu, E. (1961, September 14). Women’s Charter. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 84. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO); Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations. (n.d.). Women’s Charter. Retrieved from Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations website: http://www.scwo.org.sg/index.php/resources/womens-charter; Chia, S. A. (2009, July 4). A quiet force on women’s issues. The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
70. Chuang, P. M. (1986, May 15). New PAP foundation to run non-political activities. The Business Times, p. 18. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
71. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, pp. 82–83. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
72. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
73. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
74. New look Petir unveiled. (2008, January–February). Petir, 21. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P); Petir, the lightning. (2014, April). Petir, 28–29. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/Petir_April_2014_LC_edited2.pdf; Wong, L. (2012, November–December). A note to our readers. Petir, 5. Retrieved from https://lightning-volume.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/petir_forms/petir_nov_dec_2012_0.pdf
75. Chan, H. C. (1989). The PAP and the structuring of the political system. In K. S. Sandhu & P. Wheatley (Eds.), Management of success: The moulding of modern Singapore (pp. 70–89). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 83. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 MAN-[HIS]); New guard have forged own working style. (1987, March 16). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
76. Hussin Mutalib. (2010). PM Lee Hsien Loong and the “third generation” leadership: Managing key nation-building challenges. In T. Chong (Ed.), Management of success: Singapore revisited (pp. 51–66). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 53. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 MAN-[HIS])
77. United Nations. (1965, August 7). Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state. Signed at Kuala Lumpur, on 7 August 1965. Retrieved from United Nations Treaty Collection website: http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20563/volume-563-I-8206-English.pdf
78. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 152. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
79. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 75. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
80. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 153. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR); YP plans party by the bay. (2005, September–October). Petir, 45. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P)
81. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 153. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
82. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 87. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
83. People’s Action Party. (1999). For people through action by party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 59. (Call no.: RSING 324.25957 FOR)
84. Leong, C. (2004). PAP 50: Five decades of the People’s Action Party. Singapore: People’s Action Party, p. 109. (Call no.: RSING q324.25957 LEO)
85. The Commonwealth. (2014). Singapore: Constitution and politics. Retrieved from The Commonwealth website: http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/singapore/constitution-politics; People’s Action Party. (2014). Party constitution: About PAP. Retrieved from People’s Action Party website: https://www.pap.org.sg/about-pap/party-constitution
86. Lee, S. (2005, May–June). Vote of support for YPW. Petir, 20–23. Singapore: People’s Action Party. (Call no.: RSING 329.95957 P)
87. Tham, Y.-C. (2014, November 8). PAP must deliver good leadership for S’pore: PM. The Straits Times. Retrieved from Factiva; Fang, J. (2014, November 7). PAP will always be on Singapore and citizens’ side: PM Lee. Today. Retrieved from Factiva.




The information in this article is valid as at 26 January 2015 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

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Politics and Government
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