National Cadet Corps



The National Cadet Corps (NCC), supported by the Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) and Ministry of Education (MOE), is one of the largest youth uniformed groups in Singapore.1 Its history dates back to 1901, when the first cadet corps unit was formed at the Raffles Institution (RI) to train youths for the Singapore Volunteer Corps (SVC).2 The present-day NCC was established on 1 January 1969.3 It comprises three services: land (army), sea (navy) and air (air force), of which NCC (Land) is the largest.4 Made a compulsory co-curricular activity (CCA) for secondary schools since 1975, the NCC has been enhancing its activities over the last few decades to ensure that it continues to remain relevant and attractive as a CCA for the youth.5

Background
The history of the NCC dates back to 1901, when a cadet corps unit comprising existing and former RI students was formed on 14 May at RI by then acting principal C. M. Philips.6 The corps was attached to the SVC.7 In 1906, a second cadet corps unit was set up at the St Joseph’s Institution (SJI).8 The interest towards sustaining the corps, however, began to wane subsequently; by end 1916, its membership had diminished.9

In 1917, the Education Department took steps to revive the cadet corps, which was thereafter managed separately from the SVC.10 By 1918, units had been formed in six schools: RI, SJI, Anglo-Chinese School, St Andrew’s School, Outram Road School and Victoria Bridge School.11 The revived corps shifted its focus to youth development, and its objectives were to improve the physique and discipline of the boys, as well as to cultivate in them the spirit of patriotism.12 During World War II, the military training undergone by the cadet corps was put to practical use: A large number of the cadets joined the SVC and fought against the Japanese to defend Singapore.13

The cadet corps was banned during the Japanese Occupation period, but was revived thereafter.14 By July 1947, RI had re-established a unit of 70 boys, and more units were subsequently formed in other schools.15 In 1948, the Sea Cadet Corps was started at the Singapore Junior Technical Trade School, and the Air Cadet Training Corps was formed on 14 July in the following year.16 The land, sea and air cadet corps were operating independently of one another at the time.17

When Singapore became an independent nation in 1965, the MOE launched an expansion programme for the cadet corps, so as to prepare youths for the commencement of National Service in 1967 and inculcate in them a sense of patriotism.18

The year 1967 saw the formation of the first female cadet corps unit, comprising girls from both mixed-gender and all-girls secondary schools.19

Establishment of present-day NCC
On 1 January 1969, the NCC, as it is known today, was established. It encompassed the land, sea and air cadet movements, as well as the Police Cadet Corps, so as to bring the four under a common structure.20 In the following year, however, the police arm was reorganised into a separate entity. This was due to the division of the Ministry of Interior and Defence into the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and MINDEF on 11 August 1970, following which the police arm was placed under the purview of MHA while the rest of the NCC went under the charge of MINDEF.21

On 22 November 1972, the National Cadet Corps Bill was passed to provide for the official establishment and maintenance of the NCC, as well as the replacement of regulations that had previously governed the land, sea and air cadet corps separately.22 With the commencement of the National Cadet Corps Act on 1 April 1973, the NCC Council, the policy-making body of the corps, was established in the same month.23

Key developments
With the introduction of the cadet corps expansion programme in 1965, the combined membership of the land, sea and air cadet corps rose from about 1,500 at the time to over 14,000 (9,000 boys and 5,000 girls) in 1972. The rapid expansion of the corps, however, resulted in a shortage of officers to lead the growing number of cadets. A number of steps were taken to address the issue. These included the introduction of a programme at the Teachers Training College (present-day National Institute of Education) to train its students to become NCC cadet officers, as well as the appointment of teachers who were Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) reservists as NCC officers.24

Since 1975, the NCC has been made a mandatory CCA for secondary schools.25 Specifically, schools with more than 1,000 students must have both NCC and National Police Cadet Corps (NPCC) units, while those with an enrolment of less than 1,000 must have either the NCC or NPCC units.26

During the 1980s, the NCC’s cadet membership fell to about 10,000. To increase its attractiveness as a CCA and to remain relevant, the corps took steps to remake itself. These included altering the general perception that the NCC’s focus was primarily on drills, and enhancing the military-related activities within the cadet training curriculum to make it more exciting. In 1993, the SAF-NCC Familiarisation Programme was introduced. Organised and hosted by the SAF, the objective of this annual event is to update school principals and teacher officers on the SAF’s latest developments, so as to motivate them to share these developments with the NCC members in their schools.27 On 15 May 1999, the NCC 21 Masterplan was launched. Serving as a roadmap for the NCC, the masterplan emphasised adventure and leadership training for its members.28 The NCC’s efforts to remake and reposition itself as an exciting and fun CCA paid off, as its membership rose to about 18,000 in 2010.29

In 2011, the NCC 110 Transformation Masterplan was launched to ensure that the corps continues to remain relevant and attractive as a CCA for the youth.30 The plan comprises three main thrusts – integrating programmes, enhancing institutional capacity, and boosting image and identity – through which the NCC develops its cadets into dedicated, empowered, fit, nurturing and disciplined individuals with a positive mindset towards achieving excellence.31

Headquarters
With the integration of the four cadet corps (land, sea, air and police) under one organisation in 1969, the NCC headquarters (HQ NCC) was established in the same year to manage and coordinate the operational matters of all NCC units, including training, discipline and welfare.32

Initially located at Pearl’s Hill Terrace, the HQ NCC was moved to Tanglin on 1 June 1972. It was subsequently housed on Haig Road from September 1981 to April 2000, following which it shifted to the current NCC Campus at Amoy Quee Camp in Ang Mo Kio.33

The NCC Campus was officially opened on 30 May 2001. The campus facilities include terrain for field training, a 25-metre rifle range, as well as the NCC Motivation Course, an obstacle course designed to improve NCC cadets’ fitness levels.34

Cadet training and achievement recognition
The NCC cadet training syllabus includes general military knowledge, as well as adventure training and leadership development.35 The integration of land, air and sea programmes is emphasised to enable NCC cadets to enjoy activities that encompass the three elements.36 In addition, to promote the quest for excellence and inculcate the spirit of participation and sportsmanship amongst the cadets, competitions are included as part of the training curriculum. NCC cadets are also engaged in community service, so as to help develop their sense of social responsibility.37

Under the Affiliation Schemes introduced in 1969, the SAF provides officers and specialists to assist NCC (Land) in cadet training and proficiency testing. The schemes also entail visits to various SAF facilities by NCC cadets. The Affiliation Schemes were subsequently extended by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) to NCC (Sea) in 1986, followed by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) to NCC (Air) in 1987. To further strengthen the link between the SAF and NCC, the SAF Unit Advisors Scheme was launched in 2000. Under the scheme, experienced SAF officers are assigned to schools to help improve the quality of training and administration of the NCC units.38

Over time, a series of badges and awards have been introduced to give recognition to cadets’ achievements and to motivate them to do well. These include the Army-NCC Badge for NCC (Land) cadets launched in 1993, the RSN-NCC Badge for NCC (Sea) cadets in 1997 and the RSAF-NCC Badge for NCC (Air) in 1998. The CM Philips Award was introduced in 2011 to recognise school cadet units that have attained the NCC Best Unit Competition Gold Award for 10 consecutive years.39

Uniform
The NCC members wear the same uniform as the SAF servicemen. In 2009, the SAF introduced a new set of combat fatigues for its servicemen which is lighter and quick-drying. In addition, the new uniform replaces the older camouflage print with a pixelated design that reduces the risk of enemy detection. The NCC adopted the new SAF serviceman uniform in 2012.40

NCC Day and annual parades
The NCC Day is designated 1 July, and the NCC Day Parade has been held annually in July since its first iteration in 1902.41 Another key annual affair for the NCC is its participation in the National Day Parade as one of the marching contingents.42

Centenary celebrations
The NCC celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2001 with a series of events held from May to August. These included the official opening of the NCC Campus on 30 May, the Centenary Carnival from 30 to 31 May, as well as the Centenary Parade on 15 July with then Deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong as guest-of-honour.43

Timeline
14 May 1901: Formation of the first land cadet corps unit at RI.44
1948: Establishment of the Sea Cadet Corps.45
14 Jul 1949: Establishment of the Air Cadet Training Corps.46
1965: Launch of cadet corps expansion programme by the MOE to prepare youths for National Service.47
1 Jan 1969: Establishment of present-day NCC.48
Apr 1973: Establishment of the NCC Council.49
1975: NCC became a compulsory extra-curricular activity (known today as CCA) for secondary schools.50
15 May 1999: Launch of the NCC 21 Masterplan.51
2001: Celebration of the NCC’s 100th anniversary.52
30 May 2001: Official opening of HQ NCC at Amoy Quee Camp.53
2011: Launch of the NCC 110 Transformation Masterplan.54



Author
Cheryl Sim



References
1. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 50, 79. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
2. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT–[LKY]); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
3. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 377. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
4. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
5. Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/1943; National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 9, 16, 79, 80. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
6. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693; Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 26, “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
7. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY]); Raffles Institution prize distribution. (1901, December 24). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
9. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
10. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
11. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
12. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
13. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
14. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
15. Schools revive cadet corps. (1948, February 10). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
16. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693; Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY]); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
17. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 376. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN)
18. Ministry of Communications and Information. (2013, April 12). Towards independence. Retrieved from Singapore.sg website: http://app.singapore.sg/about-singapore/history/towards-independence; Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693; Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 376. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN)
19. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
20. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 377. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT); Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 39. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
21. Foo-Tan, G. (2003, November). The Ministry of Interior and Defence. Military Heritage, 7(11). Retrieved from MINDEF website: http://www.mindef.gov.sg/content/dam/imindef_media_library/imindef2012/about_us/history/birth_of_saf/v07n11_history/Nov2003.pdf; Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 46. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
22. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, cols. 377–378. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN)
23. Chew, L. C. (1973, April 4). Two ways to raise quality of cadet corps officers. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
24. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, cols. 376–377. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN); Chew, L. C. (1973, April 4). Two ways to raise quality of cadet corps officers. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/1943
26. Making ECA a must in all schools. (1975, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 79–80. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
28. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY]); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 80. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
29. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 80, 83. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
30. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 9, 16. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
31. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
32. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693; National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
33. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
34. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 65. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
35. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 35. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
36. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 9. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
37. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 31, 41. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
38. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
39. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY]); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 20. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
40. Nanayakara, D. (2009, June 9). New, lighter uniforms for NCC cadets from 2012. My Paper. Retrieved from Factiva.
41. Deyi NCC. (2012, July 6). NCC Day message [Web log post]. Retrieved from Deyi NCC (Land) website: http://deyi-ncc.blogspot.sg/2012/07/ncc-day-message.html; Koh, E. B. (2013, July 21). NCC Day 2013:Organised by cadets for the cadets. Retrieved from cyberpioneer website: http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/resourcelibrary/cyberpioneer/topics/articles/news/2013/jul/21jul13_news.html; NCC Day Parade 2004. (2004, July). National Cadet Corps, 31, 2–3. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NCC)
42. Chandran, R., et al. (1970, August 10). The rolling tanks leave their mark – on the road and the spectators. The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 81. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 65, 69, 73. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
44. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 26, “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
45. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
46. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693; National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
47. Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road). (n.d.). History of the corps. Retrieved from Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) website: http://acsbr.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&func=view&rid=1077693
48. Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 377. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN); National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
49. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
50. Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/1943
51. Beng, A., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 105th anniversary, character-building, experiences, achievements. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. “Milestone”. (Call no.: RDIST 369.4095957 NAT –[LKY])
52. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 81. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)
53. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). National Cadet Corps: 100 years of distinction. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, p. 65. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 NAT)
54. National Cadet Corps. (n.d.). NCC 110: Nurturing, committed, cool. Singapore: National Cadet Corps, pp. 9, 16. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 NAT)




The information in this article is valid as at 13 October 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. 

Subject
Recreation
Sports and Recreation
Organisations