National Police Cadet Corps



The National Police Cadet Corps (NPCC) is a youth uniformed group in Singapore supported by the Singapore Police Force (SPF) and the Ministry of Education (MOE).1 It was set up in 1959 as the Police Cadet Corps (PCC), against the backdrop of nation-building to break down the barrier between the people and the police, and at the same time strengthen the sense of discipline and civic responsibility in youths.2 The corps officially took on its current name on 20 July 1971, and it has been a compulsory co-curricular activity for secondary schools since 1975.3 Currently one of the largest uniformed groups in Singapore, its membership comprises secondary school students, as well as adult and youth volunteers from the education service, tertiary institutions and members of public.4

Establishment
When Singapore became a self-governing state under British rule in 1959, the society was suffering from serious problems of law and order.5 There were tension and mounting hatred between the community and the police force, and riots and unlawful activities were prevalent.6 Vulnerable youths were targeted as recruits for these activities, and schools were plagued by secret societies.7

As part of the effort to overcome these security threats, the idea of establishing the PCC was first proposed by then Commissioner of Police A. E. G. Blades.8 There were several reasons for setting up the PCC. Firstly, it aimed to break down the barrier between the people and the police to achieve better cooperation between the two parties. Secondly, the PCC would help strengthen the sense of discipline and civic responsibility in youths, thereby developing their moral character.9 Thirdly, by setting up a police-linked movement in schools, the authorities also hoped that more youths would join the regular police force upon completion of their education.10

The first PCC unit was formed on 8 May 1959 in Bartley Secondary School as a pilot project.11 It comprised 30 boys led by Victor Seah, a schoolteacher cum training officer of the Volunteer Special Constabulary (VSC) – a component of the police force comprising volunteers vested with police officers’ powers.12

By 1961, the PCC was deemed a viable youth movement by the authorities.13 To provide for the official establishment of the new corps with recruitment from secondary schools, the Police Cadet Corps Bill was passed by the Legislative Assembly on 24 May 1961 and enacted on 2 June 1961.14 The PCC was initially placed under the command of the VSC, with the VSC commandant doubling as the PCC commandant. Ng Leng Hock, the VSC commandant then, was thus appointed the first PCC commandant in 1961.15

Key developments
In June 1961, the first two official PCC units comprising 50 cadets each were set up in Siglap Secondary School and Serangoon Garden Government High School.16 To expand the corps to more schools, the first PCC officer training course was conducted in the same year for 30 teachers. Upon completion of their training, these teachers were deployed to set up new PCC units in 11 schools.17 By 1962, the PCC had expanded to 13 schools with 390 cadets.18

In 1964, the first female PCC units were established, with 20 girls from Raffles Girls’ Secondary School and 28 from Sang Nila Utama Secondary School.19

The supervisory structure of the PCC underwent a series of changes during the 1960s and 1970s. In 1967, the corps was separated from the VSC, and Niaz Mohd Shah was appointed the first independent PCC commandant.20 A second development took place on 1 January 1969, when the army, sea, air and police cadet movements were brought under a common structure known as the National Cadet Corps (NCC). The PCC was thus renamed NCC (Police).21 However, with the subsequent division of the Ministry of Interior and Defence into the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) on 11 August 1970, NCC (Police) was placed under the purview of MHA while the rest of the NCC went under the charge of MINDEF.22 The corps then officially took on its current name, the NPCC, on 20 July 1971.23 On 1 April 1975, the NPCC Council was established to oversee and guide the development of the corps.24 Currently, the NPCC is still headed by the council, whose members include SPF officers, MOE personnel, and principals of various secondary schools.25

By 1970, the rapid expansion of the corps had resulted in a shortage of qualified teachers to train the growing number of cadets. To address this issue, the Cadet Inspectors’ Unit was established in that year to officially enrol ex-cadets as cadet leaders.26 In October 1982, an NPCC unit was set up at the National University of Singapore to train officers to lead secondary school cadets and assist in the operation of the corps.27 A similar unit was formed at the National Technological University in 1991, shortly after the inauguration of the university on 1 July 1991.28 In April 1999, the Singapore Polytechnic became the first polytechnic to establish an NPCC unit.29

In March 1971, the corps formed a band with about 60 members from various secondary schools and vocational institutes. The NPCC Band, however, was dissolved in 1985 due to poor recruitment.30

Since 1975, the NPCC has been made a mandatory co-curricular activity in secondary schools.31 Specifically, schools with more than 1,000 students must have both NPCC and NCC units, while those with an enrolment of less than 1,000 must have either NPCC or NCC units.32

Besides its traditional land activities, the idea of setting up an NPCC (Sea) unit was mooted in 2000. Officially inaugurated by then NPCC Council chairman Charles Chong in January 2003, the first two NPCC sea units were formed at the Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) and Springfield Secondary School. With support from the Police Coast Guard, the NPCC sea units serve as a platform to educate the younger generation on the importance of coastal defence.33 Currently one of the largest uniformed groups in Singapore, membership of the NPCC comprises secondary school students, as well as adult and youth volunteers from the education service, tertiary institutions and members of public.34

Headquarters
When the PCC was officially established in 1961, its headquarters was first set up within the VSC office at the Police Training School along Thomson Road.35 When the corps broke away from the command of the VSC in 1967, its headquarters moved out of the VSC office into its own premises, which was also located within the Police Training School grounds.36 In January 2006, the NPCC headquarters was shifted to the new Home Team Academy on Old Choa Chu Kang Road.37

Uniform
Based on the uniform of the regular police force, the first PCC uniform comprised a grey shirt with a pair of khaki shorts for the male and a khaki skirt for the female.38 In 1972, a year after the corps was renamed NPCC, its uniform was changed from grey and khaki to all-blue to be in line with the new SPF uniform.39

Cadet training and achievement recognition
The early cadet training programme during the 1960s included foot drill, instruction in law and general police duties, unarmed combat, weapons training and visits to police departments.40 Over time, the training programmes have been expanded and refined. For example, outdoor adventure training camps, character development, leadership training and community service were introduced during the 1970s.41

The NPCC currently has a training framework for its cadets, which comprises a number of key areas including law enforcement, leadership, resilience, personal development, innovation and enterprise.42

The corps officially unveiled its own permanent campsite on Pulau Ubin on 10 August 2004. Named Camp Resilience, the 25-hectare purpose-built campsite is used primarily by NPCC members for adventure training camps, teambuilding activities and get-together sessions.43

In 1981, proficiency badges and the Best Unit Cadet Award were initiated to recognise cadets’ achievements and to motivate them to do well. New awards were introduced in subsequent years, and more proficiency badges were added with the implementation of new competency training programmes.44 In 1997, the SPF-NPCC Badge – the most prestigious award badge attainable by NPCC cadets – was introduced to recognise cadets with outstanding achievements and good leadership qualities.45

NPCC Annual Parade and NPCC Day
In 1966, the corps organised its first annual parade; since then, the NPCC Annual Parade has been the organisation’s flagship event.46 The NPCC Day, launched in 1985, is celebrated annually on 7 May.47

Timeline
8 May 1959: First PCC unit set up in Bartley Secondary School as a pilot project.48
24 May 1961: Legislative Assembly passed the Police Cadet Corps Bill to provide for the official establishment of PCC.49
Jun 1961: First two official PCC units formed in Siglap Secondary School and Serangoon Garden Government High School.50
1966: PCC Annual Parade held for the first time.51
1969: PCC renamed NCC (Police) upon integration with army, sea and air cadet corps.52
20 Jul 1971: NCC (Police) renamed NPCC, after it was placed under the purview of MHA.53
1975: NPCC became a compulsory extra-curricular activity (now known as co-curricular activity) for secondary schools.54
1 Apr 1975: NPCC Council established to oversee the development of NPCC.55
7 May 1985: NPCC Day celebrated for the first time.56
Jan 2003: Inauguration of the first two NPCC sea units at Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) and Springfield Secondary School.57
10 Aug 2004: Official opening of Camp Resilience – NPCC’s purpose-built campsite on Pulau Ubin.58
2009: 50th anniversary of the NPCC.59



Author
Cheryl Sim



References
1. National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Route of advancement. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.gov.sg/roa.html
2. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 6, 12, 13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
3. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 47. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: https://repository.nie.edu.sg//handle/10497/1943.
4. Nanyang Technological University. (2014). Unit description. Retrieved from Nanyang Technological University National Police Cadet Corps website: https://clubs.ntu.edu.sg/ntunpcc/?page_id=33; National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Route of advancement. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.gov.sg/roa.html
5. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
6. National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). History of NPCC. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/history.html
7. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Student warning on police cadet corps. (1959, February 9). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timelesspassion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 12–13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Student warning on police cadet corps. (1959, February 9). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
10. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 21, 31. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
11. Nair, S. (1985, January 17). NPCC Day to be celebrated for first time. Singapore Monitor, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
12. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 6, 13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Singapore Police Force. (2014, July 18). About us: Volunteer Special Constabulary. Retrieved from Singapore Police Force website: https://www.police.gov.sg/about-us/organisational-structure/staff-departments/volunteer-special-constabulary
13. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
14. Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Debates: Official report. (1961, May 24). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the Police Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 14). Singapore: [s.n.], cols. 1513, 1515. (Call no.: RCLOS 328.5957 SIN); Unknown. (1961, June 7). The Singapore Free Press, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 23, 27, 110. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Police cadet head named. (1961, July 9). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). NationalPolice Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Police cadet head named. (1961, July 9). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
18. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
19. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 18. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Police Cadet Corps enrols girls for first time. (1964, June 27). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 35. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
21. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 39. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Singapore. Parliament. Parliamentary debates: Official report. (1972, November 22). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the National Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 32). Singapore: Govt. Printer, col. 377. (Call no.: RSING 328.5957 SIN)
22. Foo-Tan, G. (2003, November). The Ministry of Interior and Defence. Military Heritage, 7(11). Retrieved from http://www.mindef.gov.sg/content/dam/imindef_media_library/imindef2012/about_us/history/birth_of_saf/v07n11_history/Nov2003.pdf; Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 46. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
23. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 47. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
24. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 50, 111. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
25. National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Our people. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/people; National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). 15th NPCC Council. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/council.html
26. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 26. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 44. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
27. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); National University of Singapore National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). About us. Retrieved from National University of Singapore National Police Cadet Corps website: http://nusnpcc.org/about/; NPCC unit to be set up at NUS. (1982, February 3). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 73. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); Nanyang Technological University. (2014). Unit description. Retrieved from Nanyang Technological University National Police Cadet Corps website: https://clubs.ntu.edu.sg/ntunpcc/?page_id=33; Nanyang Technological University. (2013, October 29). Corporate information: Our history. Retrieved from Nanyang Technological University website: http://www.ntu.edu.sg/AboutNTU/CorporateInfo/Pages/OurHistory.aspx
29. Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. (1999, April 24). Speech by Mr Wong Kan Seng, Minister for Home Affairs, at the 40th anniversary National Police Cadet Corps (NPCC) Day parade on Saturday, 24 April 1999, 5.30 pm at the Police Academy. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website:  http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
30. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 34. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
31. Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: https://repository.nie.edu.sg//handle/10497/1943
32. Making ECA a must in all schools. (1975, April 12). The Straits Times, p. 23. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 8, 89, 96. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
34. Nanyang Technological University. (2014). Unit description. Retrieved from Nanyang Technological University National Police Cadet Corps website: https://clubs.ntu.edu.sg/ntunpcc/?page_id=33; National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Route of advancement. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.gov.sg/roa.html
35. 100 students chosen to form first Police Cadet Corps. (1961, August 3). The Singapore Free Press, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
36. National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). History of NPCC. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/history.html
37. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 6, 124. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Our location. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/location.html
38. Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Debates: Official report. (1961, May 24). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the Police Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 14). Singapore: [s.n.], col. 1514. (Call no.: RCLOS 328.5957 SIN); Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 16. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
39. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 27, 36. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
40. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 30. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
41. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 27–28. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
42. National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). The NPCC training framework. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/trainingframework.html
43. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 105. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Camp Resilience. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/campresilience.html   
44. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 46. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
45. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 68, 83. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
46. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 15, 19. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). NPCC Annual Parade. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/npap.html
47. Nair, S. (1985, January 17). NPCC Day to be celebrated for first time. Singapore Monitor, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; National University of Singapore National Police Cadet Corps. (2013, May 7). NPCC Day Message 2013. Retrieved from National University of Singapore National Police Cadet Corps website: http://nusnpcc.org/npcc-day-message-2013/
48. Nair, S. (1985, January 17). NPCC Day to be celebrated for first time. Singapore Monitor, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
49. Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Debates: Official report. (1961, May 24). Considered in Committee, Reported and Third Reading of the Police Cadet Corps Bill (Vol. 14). Singapore: [s.n.], cols. 1513, 1515. (Call no.: RCLOS 328.5957 SIN)
50.
 Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO); Police cadet head named. (1961, July 9). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 19. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
52. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 39. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
53. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 47. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
54. Koh, J. N. S. (1987). Extra-curricular activities in schools: Getting the right perspective. Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 57–66. Retrieved from National Institute of Education website: https://repository.nie.edu.sg//handle/10497/1943.
55. Teow, M. B. K., & Wijeysingha, E. (2000). National Police Cadet Corps: Its origin, growth and development. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 50, 111. (Call no.: RSING q369.4095957 TEO)
56. Nair, S. (1985, January 17). NPCC Day to be celebrated for first time. Singapore Monitor, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, pp. 89, 96. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)
58. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 105. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM); National Police Cadet Corps. (2014). Camp Resilience. Retrieved from National Police Cadet Corps website: http://www.npcc.org.sg/campresilience.html 
59. Khoo, R., et al. (Eds.). (2009).
Timeless passion, enduring spirit: 50 years of the National Police Cadet Corps. Singapore: National Police Cadet Corps, p. 4. (Call no.: RSING 369.4095957 TIM)



The information in this article is valid as at 1 October 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. 

Subject
Community and Social Services
Organisations