Paul Abisheganaden



Paul Selvaraj Abisheganaden (b. 27 March 1914, Penang, Straits Settlements–d. 31 August 2011,  Singapore)1 was a musician and conductor, who was awarded the Cultural Medallion in 1986.2 Born in Penang, Abisheganaden came to Singapore in 1916 at the age of two, when his family re-located in search of better opportunities. He was taught the violin by his father and pursued further studies in London’s Guildhall School of Music.3 Abisheganaden founded the Singapore Chamber Ensemble in 1950, which became the most active amateur orchestra and chorus in Singapore for almost 30 years. His book Notes Across the Years is a definitive history of Western classical music in Singapore.4 His pioneering work in music paralleled an illustrious career in education and administrative services.

Early life
Abisheganaden was the eldest in a family of nine children. On the day of his birth, Penang was shelled by the World War I German cruiser Emden.5


Abisheganaden was taught the violin by his father, a keen amateur musician who played many instruments.6 At six, Abisheganaden started receiving lessons from Chee Kong Tet, leader of the Chia Keng Tai Orchestra. His lessons cost about $2 to $5 a month.7

Abisheganaden studied at Serangoon English School (a branch of Anglo-Chinese School) and later St Andrew’s School.8 After passing his Senior Cambridge examinations, he began studying at Raffles College in 1931 and graduated with a diploma in the arts in 1934.9

Career in education
Abisheganaden joined the education service after graduating from Raffles College, and taught at Geylang English School, where he composed the music and lyrics for its school anthem, the “Geylang English School song”.10

He was the principal of Victoria School from 1959 to 196211 and the Teachers’ Training College from 1961 to 1968. He was the Chief Inspector of Schools until his retirement in 1969.12 For a short period in the late 1950s, he was in charge of the Cultural Affairs Unit of the Ministry of Education, which oversaw overseas cultural missions in Singapore.13

Career in music
Although his full-time work was in education, Abisheganaden made his mark as a violinist and singer, performing in recitals and church concerts. He was part of the St Andrew’s Cathedral choir, where he and his brother, Gerard, were among the few child choristers.14 He was taught the basics of conducting by Welshman Glan Williams.15


During the Japanese Occupation, Abisheganaden taught English, English literature, history and music at a number of schools including Raffles Institution, Anglo-Chinese School and St Anthony’s Boys’ School. With permission from the Department of Education, he also played the violin in the Japanese-led Syonan Kokkaido Orchestra.16 It was in this orchestra that Abisheganaden got his first taste of conducting. He had to conduct movements of Haydn’s Surprise Symphony when the orchestra’s leader was indisposed.17 He was not only paid in cash, but more importantly, in rations such as rice, vegetables and cigarettes. The latter fetched a considerable sum of money on the black market, and the earnings kept his family from much hardship.18

After World War II ended, Abisheganaden played in the short-lived Entertainments for National Service Associations (ENSA) Symphony Orchestra led by Scottish musician and composer Erik Chisholm.19 This was the first professional orchestra to assume the name of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra.20

In 1947, Abisheganaden became the first Singaporean to receive a British Council scholarship to study in the United Kingdom.21 He spent two years in London’s Guildhall School of Music, studying singing and conducting, the latter under Joseph Lewis.22 He returned to Singapore in 1949.23 Singapore was then in need of trained teachers for the voice as well as choral conductors, and Abisheganaden’s training helped fill this void.24

Abisheganaden was leading the Singapore Junior Symphony Orchestra (SJSO), formerly the Singapore Children’s Orchestra and the forerunner of the Singapore Youth Orchestra,25 when the SJSO and Combined Schools Choir gave a historic concert at the Palm Court of Raffles Hotel on 12 August 1949.26 This was the first concert by any Singaporean musical organisation to raise funds for the new University of Malaya, located in Singapore.27

In 1950, Abisheganaden formed the string orchestra of the Singapore Chamber Ensemble (SCE) and one year later its choir. The SCE gave its first concert in 1950.28 For almost 30 years after that, the largely amateur SCE was the leading concert orchestra in Singapore’s music scene, prior to the formation of the first fully professional orchestra, the Singapore Symphony Orchestra (SSO) in 1979.29

Abisheganaden became the acting master of music (a position vacated by Glan Williams when he returned to UK) at the Music Department of the Department of Education in 1952. Operating from a music studio at Monk’s Hill School,30 he coordinated all musical education activities in schools, which emphasised group singing, besides also leading a teachers’ choir.31

In recognition of his services to music and culture in Singapore, Abisheganaden was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1956.32 In 1958, the SCE performed and recorded Zubir Said’s song “Majulah Singapura”, which was specially composed for the opening of the refurbished Victoria Theatre.33 This song later became Singapore’s National Anthem in 1959.34

During the 1960s and 70s, Abisheganaden was an indefatigable organiser of large-scale cultural events and leader of massed voices. He helped organise the Ministry of Culture’s first Southeast Asian Festival of Arts at the former National Theatre in 1963, calling it the “mother of all festivals”. At the festival, he conducted a concert by the Singapore Festival Symphony Orchestra.35 In 1978, he led a 4,500-strong choir nightly for five nights at the Billy Graham Crusade held at the National Stadium.36

In the 1970s, Abisheganaden was also instrumental in developing classical music programmes for Singapore’s first FM radio station, Radio and Television Singapore (later the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation).37

With the formation of the SSO, the SCE lost its main core of voluntary musicians, who had turned professional, and soon ceased regular concert activities.38 In 1979, Abisheganaden assumed directorship of the Centre for Musical Activities at the National University of Singapore (NUS).39 There he founded and became the first music director of the NUS Concert Orchestra, which later became the NUS Symphony Orchestra.40

Ironically, this became Abisheganaden’s first salaried job as an orchestral conductor, leading him to jest that his newly acquired remuneration had paid for 30 years of conducting for free.41 He led the orchestra in local concerts and tours to Indonesia and Taiwan.42

In 1986, for his services to music and culture in Singapore, Abisheganaden was awarded  the Cultural Medallion, Singapore’s highest accolade for artistic achievement.43

In 2005, the NUS published Abisheganaden’s book Notes Across the Years: Anecdotes from a Musical Life, a semi-autobiography detailing the history of Western classical music performance and teaching in Singapore from the 1920s to the 80s.44 Its attention to factual detail and vivid narration has made it an invaluable reference and resource for all students of musical history in Singapore.45 In his retirement, Abisheganaden was a lively raconteur and source of inspiration for all music-makers and musicians, amateur and professional.

Timeline
1914: Born in Penang, Straits Settlements.

1916: Abisheganaden family moves to Singapore.
1920: Studies violin with Chee Kong Tet,46 leader of the Chia Keng Tai Orchestra.
1930–31: Completes Senior Cambridge examinations and starts school at Raffles College.
1934: Graduates with a diploma in Arts from Raffles College. Becomes a teacher at Geylang English School.
1942–45: Violinist in Syonan Kokkaido Orchestra, while working as a teacher.
1945: Violinist in the ENSA Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Erik Chisholm.
1947: First Singaporean to receive a British Council scholarship to study in the United Kingdom.
1949: Completes studies in singing and conducting at London’s Guildhall School of Music.
1950: Founds the SCE.47
1956: Conferred a Member of the Order of the British Empire.48
1958: Conducts the SCE in the first orchestral performance of Zubir Said’s “Majulah Singapura”, which later becomes the National Anthem.
1959–1961: Principal of Victoria School.49
1961–1968: Principal of Teachers’ Training College.50
1963: Helps organise first Southeast Asian Festival of Arts at the National Theatre. Conducts the Singapore Festival Symphony Orchestra in the festival.51
1978: Composes anthem for the Billy Graham Crusade. Conducts a choir of 4,500 singers for five nights for the crusade.52
1979: Appointed director of NUS CMA. Founds the NUS Concert Orchestra, which later becomes NUS Symphony Orchestra.53
1986: Awarded the Cultural Medallion.54
1997: Conducts last concert, a special concert for hospices at Harbour Pavilion.55
2005: Notes Across the Years: Anecdotes from a Musical Life is published and released.56
2006: Conferred the Composers and Authors Society of Singapore (COMPASS) Meritorious Award.57
2007: Conferred NUS Distinguished Alumni Service Award.58

Concerts and performances
Numerous concerts with SCE, NUS Concert Orchestra and other groups.


Publication
2005: Notes Across the Years: Anecdotes from a Musical Life


Awards
1956: Member of the Order of the British Empire59

1986: The Cultural Medallion60
2006: The COMPASS Meritorious Award61
2007: NUS Distinguished Alumni Service62



Author

Chang Tou Liang



References
1. Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1; Nanda, A. (2011, September 2). Death of a maestro. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37; Hoe, I. (1987, February 11). Magnificent Seven of the Arts win praises. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
3. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 9). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/1, p. 6]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Cheong, J. (2005, November 23). Note-able achievements. The Straits Times, p. 10; Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/43, pp. 516, 519–520]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/44, p. 530]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 9). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/1, p. 3]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/  
6. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, December 13). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/37, p. 445]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
7. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 12). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/3, p. 37]; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, December 13). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/37, p. 446]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

8. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 9). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/1, p. 1]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

9. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 28). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/7, pp. 86, 88, 95]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

10. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 28). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/7, p. 87]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, February 23). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/11, p. 147]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

11. Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
12. Abisheganaden is named new principal of S’pore T.T.C. (1961, September 2). The Singapore Free Press, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 226. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI); Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, August 22). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/31, p. 381]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
13. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 28). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/5, pp. 60–61]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, August 24). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/21, p. 262]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

14. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 28). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/5, pp. 60–61]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, December 13). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/37, p. 449]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

15. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, February 23). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/11, p. 147]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; National Library Board. (2016). Paul Abishegenaden. Retrieved from NORA.
16. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, February 23). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/12, pp. 162–163]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, February 235). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/13, pp. 169–170, 174]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr, 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 97. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
17. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 98. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
18. Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 97. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
19. Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 133. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS]); Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 110. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
20. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 107. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
21. Cheong, J. (2005, November 23). Note-able achievements. The Straits Times, p. 10; Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, March 11). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/15, p. 197]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Cheong, J. (2005, November 23). Note-able achievements. The Straits Times, p. 10; Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, June 3). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/17, p. 215]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
23. Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
24. Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
25. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, June 3). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/17, p. 219]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ)
26. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 163. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI); Concert to aid University. (1949, July 23). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
27. Concert to aid University. (1949, July 23). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
28. Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/43, pp. 516–519]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
29. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/43, pp. 516–519]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8 5). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/44, pp. 524–526]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Singapore Symphony Orchestra. (n.d.). About us: SSO story. Retrieved 2016, August 31 from the Singapore Symphony Orchestra website: http://www.sso.org.sg/page.php?CategoryID=29
30. Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1; Singapore’s Master of Music resigns. (1952, July 22). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 194. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
31. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 116. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
32. Birthday honours: Arise, Sir Len. (1956, May 31). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
33. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, August 26). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/21, p. 264]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Spotlight on talent all on one stage. (1958, September 7). The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1994, August 26). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/21, p. 267]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/; Koh, T. T. T. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 368. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
35. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, pp. 246, 251. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
36. Man behind that 4,500-voice choir. (1978, December 16). The Straits Times, p. 2; Evangelist Billy Graham to preach here. (1978, June 2). New Nation, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ)
37. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, August 22). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/33, p. 408]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
38. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/45, p. 538]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

39. Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ)
40. Leong, C. (1989, July 20). How about a non-competitive music test for a change? The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
41. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1996, October 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/44, p. 529]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
42. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1995, September 8). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/36, pp. 435–436]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/

43. Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37; Hoe, I. (1987, February 11). Magnificent Seven of the Arts win praises. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
44. Cheong, J. (2005, November 23). Note-able achievements. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
45. Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
46. Chua, C. H. (Interviewer). (1993, March 12). Oral history interview with Paul Abisheganaden [Transcript of cassette recording no. 001415/48/3, p. 37]. Retrieved from National Archives of Singapore website: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/
47. Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
48. Birthday honours: Arise, Sir Len. (1956, May 31). The Straits Times, p. 1; Khor, C. (1987, February 11). Music. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
49. Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
50. Abisheganaden is named new principal of S’pore T.T.C. (1961, September 2). The Singapore Free Press, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
51. Abisheganaden, P. (2005). Notes across the years: Anecdotes from a musical life. Singapore: Unipress, p. 251. (Call no.: RSING 780.59597 ABI)
52. Man behind that 4,500-voice choir. (1978, December 16). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
53. Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
54. Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37; Hoe, I. (1987, February 11). Magnificent Seven of the Arts win praises. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
55. S’pore chorus joins worldwide singing relay. (1997, October 20). The Straits Times, p. 31. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
56. Cheong, J. (2005, November 23). Note-able achievements. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
57. The Composers and Authors Society of Singapore (COMPASS). (2006, May 21). 11th COMPASS awards presentation. Retrieved 2016, July 18 from COMPASS website: http://www.compass.org.sg/cIndex49.aspx
58. Almenoar, M. (2007, July 6). President honoured. The Straits Times, p. 38. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
59. Birthday honours: Arise, Sir Len. (1956, May 31). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore’s Mr Music Man. (1987). Goodwood Journal, 2nd Qtr., 26–28. (Call no.: RSING 052 GHCGJ); Koh, T. T. B. (Ed.). (2006). Singapore: The encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with National Heritage Board, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 SIN-[HIS])
60. Chang, T. L. (2005, November 27). Music of the heart. The Straits Times, p. 37; Hoe, I. (1987, February 11). Magnificent Seven of the Arts win praises. The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Purushothaman, V. (Ed.). (2002). Narratives: Notes on a cultural journey: Cultural medallion recipients 1979–2001. Singapore: National Arts Council, p. 86. (Call no.: RSING 700.95957 NAR)
61. The Composers and Authors Society of Singapore (COMPASS). (2006, May 21). 11th COMPASS awards presentation. Retrieved 2016, July 18 from COMPASS website: http://www.compass.org.sg/cIndex49.aspx
62. Almenoar, M. (2007, July 6). President honoured. The Straits Times, p. 38. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



Further resources
Abisheganaden, P. (1971, April 4). Of church choirs, kronchong parties and pops. The Straits Times, p. 17. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.


Abisheganaden, P. (1971, May 2). What’s the future of such music in the face of rapid urbanisation? The Straits Times, p. 11. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 2008 and correct as far as we can ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Award winners--Singapore--Biography
Personalities>>Biographies>>Artists>>Cultural Medallion Recipients
Musicians--Singapore--Biography
Conductors (Music)--Singapore--Biography
Arts>>Music>>Conducting
Abisheganaden, Paul, 1914- --Biography
Award winners