Carl Alexander Gibson-Hill



Carl Alexander Gibson-Hill (b. 23 October 1911, Newcastles-upon-Tyne, England–d. 18 August 1963, Singapore) was the last British director of Raffles Museum (today’s National Museum) in Singapore.1 He also made his mark as president (1956–61) of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society and as editor (1948–61) of the society’s journal. Through these highly regarded organisations, Gibson-Hill left his legacy – a remarkably wide field of published articles about Malaya’s natural, geographical and cultural history.

Early life and education
The only son of a middle-class English family, Gibson-Hill grew up in the suburbs of Birmingham, England, where his father was employed as an engineer at W. T. Avery Ltd. From an early age, Gibson-Hill showed a precocious interest in the natural history of his own estate and an inclination towards the curatorial preservation of this history. He explored his neighbourhood of Warwickshire, studying its flora and fauna and taking rubbings off old churches. His first publication, Warwickshire (1936), written under the pseudonym John Lisle, was a compilation of these observations. As a teenager, Gibson-Hill also learnt carpentry from his father. With this skill, he began building display cases in the family attic to house his personal collection of natural objects. Despite his severe short-sightedness, Gibson-Hill also displayed a flair for photography, a skill that his father also taught him.2


At the distinguished Malvern College, the inclement weather and the school’s strict rules kept Gibson-Hill indoors. Restless and miserable, he directed his energy towards drawing, bird watching and butterfly collecting, which further increased his knowledge of nature. By the time he graduated, Gibson-Hill had garnered the Gale Prize for his knowledge in entomology and won the Boldero Prize for natural history three times. Besides these achievements, he was also appointed head prefect.3

Gibson-Hill’s academic excellence led him to Pembroke College in Cambridge, where his writing skills were honed as he served as editor of the university paper, Varsity News, and worked on Warwickshire. He graduated with a Second in Natural Science Tripos in 1933 and thereafter enrolled in King’s College Hospital Medical School.4

To please his parents Gibson-Hill pursued medicine; his heart was set on exploring the fauna around him, particularly of coastal birds and island wildlife. Before he began his term as a houseman, Gibson-Hill embarked on a walk across the length of the United Kingdom, which lasted almost three months. His journal and illustrations of this adventure, unfortunately, never went into print as the typescript was lost during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942–45). At King’s College, he met and married Margaret Halliday, a fellow houseman. After their wedding in April 1938, he soon departed for a posting as resident medical officer on Christmas Island.5

Work on Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands
To reach Christmas Island, Gibson-Hill took an overland passage through Persia, Afghanistan, Cambodia before arriving in Singapore. There, he met the director of Raffles Museum, Frederick Nutter Chasen, who instructed him to build upon the existing bird collection of the museum with specimens from Christmas Island. After a stint from late 1938 to December 1940, Gibson-Hill obtained 200 specimens of birds, including six new species, along with a detailed field study of bird breeding habits as well as data on terrestrial fauna.6


After his term on Christmas Island ended, Gibson-Hill moved on to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in early 1941 and stayed there for 10-and-a-half months. He was joined by his wife who had completed her medical studies. Residing at the Cable Station on Pulau Tikus (Direction Island), the couple sailed around the island during their leisure time to make a study of reef and terrestrial fauna of the main atoll, as well as the fishes in the surrounding lagoons.7 Gibson-Hill became acquainted with the owner of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, J. S. Clunies-Ross, which gave him access to the latter’s unpublished documents. These manuscripts later became foundational resources for his writings on the history of the islands.8

World War II
With their posting completed, the Gibson-Hills arrived in Malaya towards the end of 1941. Margaret was employed at the Alor Star General Hospital, while Gibson-Hill served in Singapore’s Health Department as a health officer for the rural areas. Gibson-Hill arrived in Singapore on 12 December 1941, four days after the Japanese invaded Malaya. Chasen, then director of Raffles Museum, had escaped the country on 13 February but perished at sea after his ship was sunk by enemy forces. While Margaret managed to escape Malaya, Gibson-Hill remained in Singapore. He was made assistant curator of the Raffles Museum in the absence of the other curators, but was soon interned at Changi Prison as a prisoner-of-war, along with the rest of the British staff.9


Gibson-Hill remained active during his imprisonment, mentally reviewing the draft publication about his island postings. He served as secretary of the Leisure Hours Committee for the internees, and conducted lectures on Malaya along with other distinguished scholars who were also interned.10 An outcome of this period was G. C. Madoc’s publication, An Introduction to Malayan Birds, which was first circulated in May 1943 during their internment. The work featured pen-and-ink illustrations by Gibson-Hill and B. D. Molesworth.11 Several articles on specific bird species published after the war were also based on notes that Gibson-Hill had kept during his internment, particularly at Sime Road Camp between 1944 and 1945. These include his studies of the Malayan long-tailed tailor bird and the spotted munia, with accompanying drawings.12

Three months after his release from internment, Gibson-Hill set off on a whaler to South Georgia on an expedition to collect specimens for the Falkland Islands Museum, and to capture photographs of Antarctic seabirds. In March 1946, he became a medical officer on an oil tanker so that he could return to England.13

Fuelled by his interest in ornithology and photography, he spent the subsequent years working on two books about British birds. This resulted in his first photographic publication, British Sea Birds (1947), and the illustrated Birds of the Coast (1948). These established his reputation as an untrained yet knowledgeable ornithologist, especially with regard to coastal birds.14

Although the war years had led to extensive losses of Gibson-Hill’s research including detailed notes, the draft manuscript of a book on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and some specimens, he was still able to produce a significant number of articles on the natural life and history of Christmas Island and the Cocos, publishing them in the first postwar issues of the Bulletin of the Raffles Museum and the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.15

Raffles Museum
Returning to Singapore in 1947, Gibson-Hill was appointed assistant curator of zoology at the Raffles Museum. At the same time, he was also the acting professor of biology at the King Edward VII College of Medicine where he taught for two years. As the curator of zoology, one of Gibson-Hill’s key duties was to manage the bird specimen collections at the Raffles Museum.16 The bird collection had started as early as 1840, and was strengthened through the expeditions of Herbert C. Robinson, Cecil Boden Kloss and Chasen between 1903 and the 1930s, collecting specimens from the Malay archipelago, Indo-China, and various islands in the region.17 Gibson-Hill continued the work with his prewar studies on birds on Christmas Island and the Cocos.18 Today, this collection of birds of Southeast Asia is part of the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum’s collection.19


His studies of local birds resulted in An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Malaya (1949),20 A Checklist of Birds of Singapore Island (1950)21 and several articles on birds in the region.22

Gibson-Hill also developed an appreciation for local boats, and began studying them from as early as 1940.23 He was responsible for managing the boat collection of the Raffles Museum. By the time the Boat Room was set up at the museum in 1952, Gibson-Hill had written a number of articles on Malayan river crafts, Indonesian trading boats and Chinese vessels that were commonly sighted in Singapore waters during this period.24 Gibson-Hill’s study of maritime history also included steamers in Asia during the 19th century25 and research about master attendants in Singapore between 1819 and 1867.26

In addition to his writings, Gibson-Hill was an accomplished photographer and skilled sketcher. Although Raffles Museum had its own in-house artist, Gibson-Hill was known to make his own drawings, often based on his photographs developed in the museum or at home. Many of these illustrations and photographs accompanied his articles on Malayan birds, fauna, boats and hats. Gibson-Hill published several camera studies of Singapore and Malaya, but is perhaps best remembered for his photography of colonial buildings in 1950s Singapore. These photographs were later exhibited and then featured in Hancock’s Architecture in Singapore (1954).27

Another outcome of Gibson-Hill’s passion for birds and the arts was the Singapore Camera Society and the Singapore Arts Society, which he helped to found. He served in these organisations in various capacities such as president and competition judge.28

In 1957, Gibson-Hill became director of the Raffles Museum, succeeding Michael W. F. Tweedie (1946–57) upon the latter’s retirement.29

Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
Gibson-Hill joined the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society as a member in 1940, and subsequently assisted Tweedie as assistant secretary and as editor of the journal in 1947 and 1948 respectively.30 He served as editor between 1948 to 1961. One of his first tasks as editor was to compile the journal’s first postwar index of volumes 1 to 20 (1922–47), which was instrumental in increasing sales of the journal’s back issues, thus generating a tidy sum for the newly reinstated society.31


Under his editorship, Gibson-Hill started the “Shorts Notes” section, which featured shorter articles of interest to the scope of the journal. The section became a fixture in the first issue of each volume starting in 1950, and lasted through the decade.32 Gibson-Hill took pains to enhance and improve articles – so much so that he created a backlog of unpublished articles, to the chagrin of some.33 He was the third-most prolific contributor to the journal, contributing a total of 49 articles between 1935 and 1960, writing about various topics such as natural history and boats.34

In 1956, Gibson-Hill replaced Tweedie as president of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.35

Retirement and death
For a period during the latter half of the 1950s, Gibson-Hill held all the key posts at the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society – president, secretary, treasurer and editor of the journal – while juggling his added duties as museum director. It was during this period that Gibson-Hill’s health deteriorated.36 A known diabetic, he did little to manage his own poor health despite his medical training, and remained a heavy smoker throughout his life. Since 1956, he had suffered from bouts of cerebral and general oedema, and had been hospitalised several times up to the 1960s.37


Less than a month before his retirement, Gibson-Hill was found dead in his home on 18 August 1963. His death was ruled to be a suicide.38

Selected publications
1936:
 Warwickshire (written under the pseudonym John Lisle)39

1947: British Sea Birds40
1948: Birds of the Coast41
1948: Singapore, Twenty-four Camera Studies42
1949: The Malayan Landscape; Seventy Camera Studies43

1950: A Working List of the Scientific Periodicals Publications Retained in the Raffles Museum and Library44
1953: Notes on the Sea Birds of the Orders Procellariiformes and Pelecaniformes Recorded as Strays or Visitors to the Ceylon Coast45
1953: An Exhibition of Eastern & Western Musical Instruments, British Council Centre, Sept 12th to 20th, 195346
1954: Architecture in Singapore47

1956: Singapore: Old Strait & New Harbour, 1300–187048
1976: A Guide to the Birds of the Coast (revised edition)49

Medical appointments
1938–1940: Medical officer, Christmas Island
1941: Medical officer, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
1941–1942: Health officer for the rural areas, Singapore
March 1946: Health officer on an oil tanker
12 Jul 1948–21 Jun 1950: Acting professor of biology, King Edward VII College of Medicine, Singapore50

Raffles Museum51
1942–1948: Assistant curator, Raffles Museum

1949–1956: Curator of zoology, Raffles Museum
1957–1963: Director, Raffles Museum

Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society
1940: Member52
1947–1951: Assistant honorary secretary and treasurer53
1951–1955: Honorary secretary54
1948–1961: Honorary editor, Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society55
1956–1961: President56

Other appointments
1936: Member, Royal College of Surgeons and Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians57

1949: Malayan representative, Colonial Insecticides Committee58
1950: Member, Committee of the Malayan Nature Society
1950: Permanent member, Standing Committee on Distribution of Terrestrial Faunas in the Inner Pacific59
1951: Member, International Committee, International Ornithological Congress Corresponding Fellow, American Ornithologists Union60
1952: Vice-president, Singapore Camera Club61
1953: President, Singapore Camera Society62
1949–1953: Chairman, Singapore Arts Society63



Author

Bonny Tan



References
1. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 1. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
2. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 1–3. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

3. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 2. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

4. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 2–3. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

5. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 3–4. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

6. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1947). Notes on the birds of Christmas Islands. Singapore: Raffles Museum. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29964 GIB-[GBH]; Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1905–1949). Papers on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Singapore: [s.n.]. (Call no.: RCLOS 969.9 GIB-[GBH]); Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 4–5. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
7. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 5. Retrieved from JSTOR; Gibson-Hill, C. A. (Ed.). (1953). Documents relating to John Clunies Ross, Alexander Hare and the establishment of the colony on the Cocos-Keeling Islands. Singapore: Malaya Pub. House, p. 7. (Call no.: RCLOS 969.8 GIB)
8. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (Ed.). (1953). Documents relating to John Clunies Ross, Alexander Hare and the establishment of the colony on the Cocos-Keeling Islands. Singapore: Malaya Pub. House, p. 7. (Call no.: RCLOS 969.8 GIB)
9. People in S’pore make news. (1947, July 11). The Singapore Free Press, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 5–6, 8. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
10. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 6. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

11. Madoc, G. C. (1947). An introduction to Malayan birds. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature, [Preface]. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29595 MAD-[GBH])
12. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board, pp. 194–195. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
13. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 6–7. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
14. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 7–8. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

15. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 9. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; His pictures survived occupation. (1947, November 30). The Straits Times, p. 7. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, pp. 8–9. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
17. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 17. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
18. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 8. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
19. Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum. (2016, October 10). Bird collection. Retrieved 2016, November 14 from Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum website: http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/index.php/zoological-reference-collection-zrc/birds
20. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1949). An annotated checklist of the birds of Malaya. Singapore: Govt. Print. Off. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.2942 GIB-[GBH])
21. Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1950). A checklist of birds of Singapore island. Singapore: Raffles Museum. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.295951 GIB-[GBH])
22. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 12. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
23. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 5. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

24. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1949. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 4. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); Tweedie, M. W. F. (1953). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1952. Singapore: Government Printers, pp. 4, 6–7. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
25. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1954, May). The steamers employed in Asian waters, 1819–39. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 27(1)(165), 120–162. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
26. Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1960). Gibson-Hill papers: Research notes on master attendants, Old Straits of Singapore. (Call no.: RCLOS 387.1095957 GIB-[LKL])
27. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board, pp. 21–22. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
28. Colony forms art society. (1949, November 21). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tweedie, M. W. F. (1953–1955). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the years 1953–1955. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
29. He gets top museum post. (1957, February 15). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 24. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
31. Tiew, W. S. (1998, July). History of Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (JMBRAS) 1878–1997: An overview. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 3(1), 43–61, p. 56. Retrieved from EBSCOhost via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
32. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1950, February). Editorial. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21(1)(151), p. vi; Contents. (1959, May). Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 32(1)(185). Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

33. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 10. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

34. Tiew, W. S. (1998, July). History of Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (JMBRAS) 1878–1997: An overview. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 3(1), 43–61, pp. 50, 52. Retrieved from EBSCOhost via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

35. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
36. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 10; Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1958, May). Annual report of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, for the year 1957. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 31(1)(181), vi–ix, p. viii. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
37. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 10. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 25. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
38. Court told of doctor’s worry before suicide in his bath. (1963, December 21). The Straits Times, p. 10; Dr. Gibson-Hill burial. (1963, August 21). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 14. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
40. Gibson-Hill. (1947). British sea birds. London: H.F. & G. Witherby. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.4 GIB-[GBH])
41. Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1948). Birds of the coast. London: H.F. & G. Witherby. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.2942 GIB-[GBH])
42. Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1948). Singapore: Twenty-four camera studies. Singapore: Kelly & Walsh. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.51 GIB)
43. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1949). The Malayan landscape; seventy camera studies. Singapore: Kelly & Walsh. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.5 GIB-[GBH])
44. Raffles Museum. (1950). A working list of the scientific periodical publications retained in the Raffles Museum and Library, Singapore. Singapore: Govt. Print. Off. (Call no.: RCLOS 015.5951 RAF-[RFL])
45. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1953). Notes on the sea birds of the orders Procellariiformes and Pelecaniformes recorded as strays or visitors to the Ceylon coast. Colombo: National Museum of Ceylon. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.42 GIB-[GBH])
46. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1953). An exhibition of Eastern & Western musical instruments, British Council Centre, Sept. 12th to 20th, 1953. Singapore: Singapore Art Society. (Call no.: RCLOS 781.91 SIN)
47. Hancock, T. H. H., & Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1954). Architecture in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Art Society. (Call no.: RCLOS 722.4095957 SIN-[GBH])
48. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1956). Singapore Old Strait & New Harbour. Singapore: Govt. Print. Off. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.51 BOG-[GBH])
49. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 188. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
50. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1950. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE)
51. Lim, I. (Ed.). (2008). An orientalist’s treasure trove of Malaya and beyond: Catalogue of Gibson-Hill Collection at the National Library Singapore. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 959.51 LEE); Tweedie, M. W. F. (1949–55). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1948–1954. Singapore: Government Printers. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
52. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1947, December). List of members for 1946. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 20(2)(142), p. xxi. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
53. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1947, December). List of members for 1946. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 20(2)(142), pp. v–xi; Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1949, March). Annual report of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society for 1948. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 22(1)(147), p. v. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/; Gibson-Hill, C. A., (1950, March). Council for 1950. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 23(2)(152), p. v; Gibson-Hill, C. A., (1951, February). Council for 1951. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 24(1)(154), p. ii. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

54. Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1951, July). Council for 1951 (1 July to 31 December). Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 24(2)(155), n.p.; Gibson-Hill, C. A., (1956, May). Annual report of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society for 1955. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29(1)(173), p. x. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

55. Tiew, W. S. (1998, July). History of Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (JMBRAS) 1878–1997: An overview. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 3(1), 43–61, p. 47. Retrieved from EBSCOhost via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

56. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1957). Annual report of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society for 1956. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 30(1)(177), p. viii; Hodgson, G. A., & Bogaars, G. E. (1963, May). Annual report of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society for 1962. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 36(1)(201), p. v. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

57. Hodgson, G. (1965, December). Memoir of C. A. Gibson-Hill. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society38(2)(208), 1–16, p. 3. Retrieved from JSTOR via NLB’s eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/

58. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1950). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1949. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
59. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1951). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1950. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
60. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1952). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1951. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
61. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1953). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1952. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
62. Tweedie, M. W. F. (1954). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1953. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)
63. Colony forms art society. (1949, November 21). The Singapore Free Press, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tweedie, M. W. F. (1954). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1953. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF); Tweedie, M. W. F. (1955). Report of the Raffles Museum and Library for the year 1954. Singapore: Government Printers, p. 2. (Call no.: RCLOS 027.55957 RAF)



The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. 

Subject
Science and technology>>General science>>Natural history
Gibson-Hill, Carl Alexander, 1911-1963
Personalities
Personalities>>Biographies
Naturalists--Singapore