Shirin Fozdar



Shirin Fozdar (b. 1905, Bombay, India–d. 2 February 1992, Singapore) was a women’s rights pioneer.1 One of the founders of the Singapore Council of Women (SCW) in 1952, Fozdar was also a key figure in establishing the Muslim Syariah Court and the Women’s Charter.2

Early life
Born in Bombay (Mumbai), India, to Persian parents, Mehraban Khodabux Behjat and Dowlat, Fozdar studied at a Parsi school in Bombay and then at the St Joseph’s Convent boarding school in Panchgani, Maharashtra. After passing her Senior Cambridge examination at Elphinstone College, she enrolled at the Royal Institute of Science to study dentistry. There, she met and married her husband, Khodadad Muncherjee Fozdar, a doctor.3

Fozdar is best remembered as a fearless and outspoken advocate of women’s rights.4 Even in her early years, when she was still in school, she had already started making public speeches on social and women’s issues.5 In 1922, she was invited to speak on universal education at the Baha’is of India National Convention in Karachi, Pakistan. It was hailed as “the first time an Eastern woman had addressed a public gathering in the East”. In 1931, she participated in the All-Asian Women’s Conference in Lahore, Pakistan. Two years later, the conference sent her to the League of Nations in Geneva to present on the topic, “Equality of Nationality for Women”. After the conference in Geneva, Fozdar accompanied her husband to London where he was taking a course, while she took up journalism. The couple returned to India a year later. Back in India she became a well-known public speaker, delivering numerous talks and lectures in different parts of India, and in neighbouring countries. In 1950, the Fozdars left India for Singapore.6

Women’s Charter of Singapore
Polygamy was a common and accepted custom in 1950 when the Fozdars arrived in Singapore. Fozdar recounted that prominent men would show off their fifth or sixth wife at parties, which appalled her. As many women and young girls were often left in distressing and unfortunate situations due to the lack of legal protection for women, Fozdar was motivated to take up the women’s cause and, in particular, to campaign against polygamy.7

In November 1951, a group of women activists in Singapore including Fozdar convened to discuss the formation of an umbrella organisation to provide a united voice for the various women’s organisations then existing in Singapore. Following this, the SCW was formed in April 1952, and Fozdar was elected its honorary secretary.8

Throughout the 1950s, the SCW campaigned actively against polygamy, and as the honorary secretary of SCW, she wrote to prominent community leaders and government officials in Singapore and to the colonial affairs office in London to fight for monogamous marriage law.9 She also met political party leaders to lobby for the cause, and presented many talks over the radio and at various associations to raise public awareness of polygamy.10

The SCW’s efforts paid off when the People’s Action Party (PAP) included women’s rights in the party’s election manifesto for the 1959 general election, which it won. Following PAP’s victory, the Women’s Charter was passed in the Legislative Assembly in 1961, effectively outlawing polygamy for non-Muslims.11 The charter provides for the fundamental rights for women, such as ownership of properties, equal status in a marriage and fair treatment during a divorce.12

Other work for the women’s movement
In 1953, Fozdar initiated the establishment of Singapore’s first women’s club at Joo Chiat Welfare Centre to teach women the English language, arithmetic as well as other practical subjects and skills.13 She also played a key role in the establishment of the Syariah Court in 1958.14

At the same time, Fozdar led delegations to attend conferences and meetings on women’s rights and issues. In 1958, she led the Singapore delegation to the Afro-Asian Women’s Conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka, where she made a bold speech to the delegates that Singapore was being converted into “a big brothel” due to the ease in which “women were smuggled into the colony and traded”. The team also went to the Pan-Pacific and Southeast Asia Women’s Conference in Japan.15 

By then, Fozdar had become well known in Asia and internationally for her work in the cause of women’s emancipation, and was frequently invited to speak at other countries. In 1959, she was invited by the United States government to speak on women’s rights and racial prejudice.16 That same year she was also invited by the National Women’s Federation of the Republic of China to spend three weeks in the country.17

With the aim of helping destitute women and young girls, Fozdar moved to Thailand in 1961. Using her own savings and donations from patrons, she built a school in Yasothon, a town in the Ubol province of northeastern Thailand, to educate young village girls so that they could earn a living without turning to prostitution. Fozdar spent more than a decade in Thailand, and only returned to Singapore in 1975.18

On 5 February 1988, Fozdar received an award from the Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations on International Women’s Day for her contributions to the women’s movement.19

Baha’i pioneer
Besides contributing to the women’s movement in Singapore, Fozdar also played a pioneering role in the establishment of the Baha’i community in Singapore. Born into a family of the Baha’i faith, she left India with her husband in 1950 in response to a call from the leader of the Baha’i faith to spread its teachings.20 The Fozdars settled in Singapore to establish the religion here. From Singapore, they travelled frequently to peninsular Malaysia and other parts of Southeast Asia to share their knowledge on the Baha’i faith.21

Death
Fozdar passed away on 2 February 1992 from cancer at the age of 87.22 In May 1993, to commemorate her and her contribution to the advancement of women’s rights, the Association of Women for Action and Research set up the Shirin Fozdar Trust Fund to facilitate the advancement of women in Singapore “so that they may collectively and individually contribute more fully to nation, community and family”. Among other things, the fund would fund facilities such as training centres, crisis centres, homes and shelters for needy women.23


Family
Husband: Khodadad Muncherjee Fozdar (d. 1958)24

Children: Three sons and two daughters25



Author

Lee-Khoo Guan Fong




References
1 Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women’s Committee, pp. 146–147. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI)
2. Pioneer of women’s rights dies. (1992, February, 6). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Mandikini, A. (Ed.). (2007). Small steps, giant leaps: A history of AWARE and the women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Association of Women for Action and Research, pp. 54–57. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 SMA)
3. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 4–13. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG)
4. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha'i Women's Committee, pp. 146–147. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI)
5. Shirin Fozdar Trust Fund. (1993, July/December). High Networth,17(13), 76. (Call no.: RSING q332.605 HN)
6. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 10–11, 17–34. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG)
7. Chen, A. (1990, August 9). One man, one wife – and one grand old dame. The Straits Times, p. 78. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women’s Committee, pp. 90–97. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI); Chew, P. G. L. (1996). The emergence of the Baha’i faith in Singapore (1950–1972). The Singapore Bahai Studies Review, 1(1), 30–32. (Call no.: RSING 297.9305 SBS)
9. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women’s Committee, pp. 90–92. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI)
10. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 36–45. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG); Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha'i Women's Committee, pp. 90–93.

(Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI); Chew, P. G. L. (1996). The emergence of the Baha’i faith in Singapore (1950–1972). The Singapore BahaI Studies Review, 1(1), 23–32. (Call no.: RSING 297.9305 SBS)
11. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author,
pp. 45–48.(Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG); Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha'i Women's Committee, pp. 92–93. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI); Chen, A. (1990, August 9). One man, one wife – and one grand old dame. The Straits Times, p. 78; Pioneer of women’s rights dies. (1992, February, 6). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Leong, W. K. (2008). Fifty years and more of the Women’s Charter of Singapore. Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 1–24, pp. 23–24. Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://law.nus.edu.sg/sjls/articles/SJLS-Jul-2008-1.pdf; Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Official reports – parliamentary debates (Hansard). (1960, April 6). Women’s Charter Bill (Vol. 12, cols. 441–445). Retrieved from Parliament of Singapore website: https://sprs.parl.gov.sg/search/topic.jsp?currentTopicID=00049854-ZZ&currentPubID=00068982-ZZ&topicKey=00068982-ZZ.00049854-ZZ_1%2Bid024_19600406_S0003_T00191-bill%2B
13. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women's Committee, p. 146. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI)
14. Shariah ‘big step for equal rights’. (1957, September 11). The Straits Times, p. 9; Sit, Y. F. (1958, November 9). First Muslim court set up in colony. The Straits Times, p. 5; Ways to reduce polygamous marriages. (1959, August 13). The Singapore Free Press, p. 11, Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women's Committee, p. 92. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI); Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG); Colony a brothel? Yes, says delegate. (1958, March 8). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, p. 48. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG)
17. She’s off to China to talk of peace. (1959, August 8). The Singapore Free Press, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women's Committee, p. 147. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI); Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia's foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 54–61. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG); Shirin Fozdar Trust Fund. (1993, July/December). High Networth, 17(13), 76. (Call no.: RSING q332.605 HN)
19. Lam, J. L. (Ed.). (1993). Voices & choices: The women’s movement in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Council of Women’s Organisation and Singapore Baha’i Women’s Committee, p. 147. (Call no.: RSING 305.42095957 VOI)
20. The Bahá’i faith: 50 years in Singapore. (2000). Singapore: The Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Singapore, pp. 5–8. (Call no.: RSING 297.93095957 BAH); A woman with a message. (1950, September 15). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Chew, P. G. L. (1996). The emergence of the Baha’i faith in Singapore (1950–1972). The Singapore BahaI Studies Review, 1(1), 23–46. (Call no.: RSING 297.9305 SBS); Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 36–59. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG)
22. Pioneer of women’s rights dies. (1992, February 6). The Straits Times, p. 16. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Trust fund set up to honour late woman activist. (1993, May 16). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved on from NewspaperSG.
24. Ong, R. (2000). Shirin Fozdar: Asia’s foremost feminist. Singapore: The author, pp. 4–13. (Call no.: RSING 297.93092 ONG)
25. A woman with a message. (1950, September 15). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



Further resources
Fozdar, S. (1956, March 6). Message to the International Women’s Day Conference. Retrieved from Postcolonial Web website: http://www.postcolonialweb.org/singapore/gender/scw/fozdar1956a.html


Fozdar, S. (1955, July 6). Open letter to David Marshall. Retrieved from Postcolonial Web website: http://www.postcolonialweb.org/singapore/gender/scw/fozdar1955a.html

Fozdar, S. (1957, June 1). The secretary’s report to the general meeting of the Singapore Council of Women held at the Y.W.C.A. Retrieved from Postcolonial Web website: http://www.postcolonialweb.org/singapore/gender/scw/fozdar1957a.html

Fozdar, S. (1959, December 1). Report on the Singapore Council of Women. Retrieved from Postcolonial Web website: http://www.postcolonialweb.org/singapore/gender/scw/fozdar1959a.html




The information in this article is valid as at 2007 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Law and government>>Culture and community>>Social services
Community leaders
Personalities>>Biographies>>Community Leaders
Fozdar, Shirin, 1905-1992
Women civil rights workers--Singapore--Biography
Women civic leaders--Singapore--Biography
People and communities>>Social problems