Rediffusion



Rediffusion was Singapore's first cable-transmitted, commercial radio station. It started broadcasting in Singapore in 1949. In the 1960s and ’70s, the station's Chinese dialect programmes enjoyed a strong following, and many coffee shops and households were fitted with Rediffusion sets.

Background
The Rediffusion company in Singapore was a subsidiary of Broadcast Relay Services (Overseas) Ltd, a London-based company pioneering the use of cables to broadcast radio services. As part of the company's expansion into Asia, it entered Singapore in 1948, setting up broadcasting studios at the site of the former railway station at Tank Road (now Clemenceau Avenue). On 1 August 1949, Rediffusion (Singapore) Ltd was officially opened by then Governor Franklin Charles Gimson. It was Singapore's first commercial radio station, and also the first and only cable-transmitted radio station.1

The growth years
Rediffusion became a great hit and garnered 9,600 subscribers within a few months of its launch. Radio sets in those days were too expensive for many households and Rediffusion was an affordable alternative at a subscription rate of $5 per month. Initially, the station broadcasted programmes from the United Kingdom, but Chinese dialect programmes were subsequently added to meet local demand. Each day, two Rediffusion channels provided a combined 34 hours of radio programmes to subscribers. The station's entertainment-based programmes, which were a stark contrast to those produced by the government-run Radio Malaya, became very popular.2


During its heyday, Rediffusion radio sets were a common sight in coffee shops and many people gathered there to listen to American rock 'n' roll music and stories narrated in Chinese dialects by Lee Dai Sor, Ng Chia Kheng and Ong Toh. It was estimated that up to 100,000 listeners followed the programmes hosted by these master storytellers.3 By the 1960s, the number of Rediffusion subscribers had increased to about 50,000. Rediffusion continued to experience subscription growth in the 1970s, and by 1977, it had 90,428 subscribers.4 The size of the company also increased during this period of expansion. By 1979, it had 800 staff, including permanent employees and part-time broadcasters.

Over the years, Rediffusion had nurtured many local talents such as veteran actress Xiang Yun, who used to be a child artiste with the radio station;5 popular radio DJ Mark van Cuylenberg (better known as The Flying Dutchman);6 and drama doyen Kuo Pao Kun, who began his career with Rediffusion's Mandarin Drama Group.7 Foong Choon Hon, one of Singapore’s more well-known journalists, also rose to fame when he was a broadcaster with Rediffusion.8

Declining popularity and closure
When the Singapore government launched the Speak Mandarin Campaign in 1979, Rediffusion was required to stop all dialect programmes by 1982. This proved detrimental to Rediffusion. As a result of the ban on dialect programmes, coupled with increased competition from free-to-air radio, its subscription plunged from 110,348 in 1982 to 62,940 in 1988. By the 2000s, Rediffusion had become a shadow of its glorious past.9


In 2003, the Rediffusion company in Singapore was bought over by two partners – Ronald Reagin, a retired American lawyer, and Wong Ban Kuan. The new owners decided to venture into digital audio broadcasting (DAB) to help boost subscription, which had shrunk to about 10,000. Rediffusion was awarded a five-year DAB licence in 2005 and it started airing content digitally that year.10 By 2008, its number of channels had grown to 22, including Redistar, which specialised in playing local music made by homegrown talents, 24 hours a day.11

With its DAB service and wide range of channels, Rediffusion hoped to attract a younger audience. However, in early April 2012, the company announced that it would stop broadcasting by the end of that month. The decision was business motivated, as its losses were accumulating due to dwindling subscription, which was purported to be around 3,000 by then. At the time of its closure, Rediffusion had been running for 63 years.12

Many long-time listeners voiced their concerns over the closure of Rediffusion. It was often cited as an integral aspect of dialect culture and an important entertainment source for the elderly.13 There were also some proposals to resell Rediffusion’s content so as to preserve some of it.14

Revival
In June 2012, it was reported that a former Rediffusion DJ, Eva Chang Mei Hsiang, had bought over the Rediffusion brand name as well as the company’s audio-visual archives and equipment, with plans to revive the station.15 Chang revealed later in December that Rediffusion would be back in business in 2013, starting with the airing of old programmes from its archives.16



Authors

Joshua Chia Yeong Jia & Loh Pei Ying



References
1. Singapore International Chamber of Commerce. (1979). From early days. Singapore: Singapore International Chamber of Commerce, p. 136. (Call no.: RSING 380.10655957 SIN)

2. Oei, R. (2005). Riding the bandwidth. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, pp. 48–49. (Call no.: RSING 384.54 OEI)
3. Cheong, J. (2006, February 12). Redi-rection. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. McDaniel, D. O. (1994). Broadcasting in the Malay world: Radio, television, and video in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, p. 183. (Call no.: RSING 380.10655957 SIN)
5. Teo, P. L. (2005, December 12). The original ah jie. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Tan, J. (2006, May 24). Time to move on. Today, p. 38. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
7. Lam, D. (1990, November 22). Passionate pursuit. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Zakir Hussain. (2009, April 17). Telling stories so that others may remember. The Straits Times, p. 28. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9.  Cheong, J. (2006, February 12). Redi-rection. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Cheong, J. (2006, February 12). Redi-rection. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Eddino Abdul Hadi. (2008, September 20). All-local radio station. The Straits Times, p. 15; Mak, M. S. (2008, June 12). Rediffusion now has 22 channels. The Straits Times, p. 69. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Chin, D., & Sim, R. (2012, April 9). Station was ‘part of Singapore way of life’. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Chin, D., & Sim, R. (2012, April 9). Station was ‘part of Singapore way of life’. The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
14. Oo, G. L. (2012, April 16). Preserve the spirit of Rediffusion. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
15. Chow, J. (2012, October 29). Rediffusion back on air in February. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Ng, K. L. (2012, December 13). Rediffusion to return - on mobile, Net and cable TV. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



The information in this article is valid as at 24 December 2012 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
Organisations>>Companies
Radio broadcasting--Singapore
Arts>>Radio
Business enterprises
Radio stations--Singapore