Tan Tock Seng



Tan Tock Seng (b. 1798, Malacca, Malaysia–d. 24 February 1850, Singapore)1 was an entrepreneur and philanthropist of Hokkien descent.2 Tan started out as a humble vegetable seller and rose to become one of Singapore's most eminent philanthropists and a leader of the Chinese community.3 He was the first Asian to be appointed Justice of the Peace.4 In 1844, he helped set up a hospital for the poor which now bears his name.5

Early life
Tan was born in Malacca in 1798, the third son of an immigrant from Fujian province, China, and a local Peranakan (Straits-born Chinese) woman. In 1819, at the age of 21, Tan left Malacca and came to Singapore.6 The enterprising young man started out as a vegetable seller, bringing produce from the countryside to sell in the city. By 1827, he had saved up enough money to open a shop along the riverside at Boat Quay.7


Businessman
Through a joint business venture in land speculation with J. H. Whitehead of Shaw, Whitehead & Co., Tan eventually became a wealthy businessman.8 His landed properties included 50 acres of land where the railway station at Tanjong Pagar was located, and tracts of land stretching from the Padang all the way to High Street and Tank Road.9 He also owned a block of shophouses at Ellenborough Building and a 14-acre fruit plantation opposite the St Andrew's Mission Hospital.10


Philanthropist
Tan made generous contributions to charity.11 He was known to take care of burial expenses for destitute Chinese.12 His most famous philanthropic gesture was the donation of $5,000 towards the building of the Chinese Pauper Hospital (later renamed Tan Tock Seng Hospital) in 1844 at Pearl's Hill. The building designed by government surveyor J. T. Thomson. Although it was completed at the end of 1846, the building was operated as a hospital only from 1849 onwards as the government had used it as a temporary convict jail.13 Tan also founded the Thian Hock Keng Temple at Telok Ayer Street, Singapore's oldest temple and the centre of worship for the Hokkien community.14


Tan was the first Asian to be made Justice of the Peace by then Governor William J. Butterworth.15 His role in helping the early Chinese immigrants settle disputes earned him the title “Captain of the Chinese”.16

After a short illness, Tan died at age 52 on 24 February 1850.17 His grave lies along the grassy slope of Outram Hill.18

Family
Father:
Tan Whay Teck.19

Brother: Three brothers, of which the eldest was Oo Long. As for the other two, the older went to China and the younger probably died.20
Wife: Lee Seo Neo, who was also generous in her support of the Tan Tock Seng Hospital and paid for a women’s ward built in 1867.21
Sons: Three sons, Tan Kim Ching (also spelled Tan Kim Cheng), Tan Swee Lim and Tan Teck Guan. Kim Ching, the eldest, was also a philanthropist and continued with his financial support for the development of Tan Tock Seng Hospital.22
Daughters: Three. One daughter was married to Lee Cheng Tee, shipowner and chief partner of Cheng-tee Watt Seng and Company.23



Author

Jenny Tien



References
 
1. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Domestic occurrence death. (1850, February 26). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Mulliner, K. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ.: Scarecrow Press, p. 149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS])
3. Brazil, D. (1991). Street smart: Singapore. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BRA-[HIS]) 
4. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
5. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 34–35. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM)
6. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 1–2. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Tan Tock Seng Hospital. (2017). Founder’s history. Retrieved 2017, February 21 from Tan Tock Seng Hospital website: https://www.ttsh.com.sg/founders-history/
7. Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS]); Brazil, D. (1991). Street smart: Singapore. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BRA-[HIS])
8. Mulliner, K. (1991). Historical dictionary of Singapore. Metuchen, NJ.: Scarecrow Press, p. 149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57003 MUL-[HIS])
9. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
10. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
11. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 24. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM)
12. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 24, 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
13. When lepers roamed Singapore streets. (1956, May 5). The Straits Times, p. 9. Retrieved from NewspaperSG. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 34–35, 42. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM)
14. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 43, 45. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
15. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
16. Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
17. Domestic occurrence death. (1850, February 26). The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
18. Brazil, D. (1991). Street smart: Singapore. Singapore: Times Books International, p. 214. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 BRA-[HIS]); Quek, F. (1989, January 28). Photo display to honour Singapore pioneers. The Straits Times, p.15. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])
20. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 2. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM)
21. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), p. 57. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Lee, S. H. (1994). 150 years of caring: The legacy of Tan Tock Seng Hospital. Singapore: Tan Tock Seng Hospital, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 362.11095957 LEE) 
22. Dhoraisingham, K. D., & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 54, 79. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM)
23. Dhoraisingham, K. D. & Samuel, D. S. (2003). Tan Tock Seng: Pioneer: His life, times, contributions and legacy. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo), pp. 54, 79. (Call no.: RSING 338.04092 KAM); Singapore days of old. (1992). Hong Kong: Illustrated Magazine, pp. 51, 52. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN-[HIS])



Further resources
Lim, P-L. (1983, November 6). Singapore’s first heroes. The Straits Times, p. 18. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.

Low, Y. L. (1990, April–Sept). Founding father. Singapore Tatler, pp. 138–141.
(Call no.: RSING 959.57 ST)

Singapore Broadcasting Corporation. (1993). Pioneers. [Videotape]. Singapore: SBC.
(Call no.: RAV 959.57 PIO-[HIS])

Singapore Free Press. (1935). One hundred years of progress: Centenary number, October 8, 1935 [Microfilm no.: NL 3615]. Singapore: Singapore Free Press, p. 6.

Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years' history of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, pp. 61, 66.
(Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON-[HIS])

Tan Tock Seng Hospital. (2000). Tan Tock Seng Hospital: A distinguished past, a vision for the future. Singapore: Tan Tock Seng Hospital. 
(Call no.: RSING 362.11095957 TAN) 



The information in this article is valid as at 2008 and correct as far as we can ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the library for further reading materials on the topic.
 

Subject
Community leaders
Businessman--Singapore--Biography
Tan, Tock Seng, 1798-1850
People and communities>>Social groups and communities
Personalities>>Biographies>>Community leaders
Philanthropists--Singapore--Biography
Business, finance and industry>>Business organization>>Business enterprises