Zubir Said



Zubir Said (b. 22 July 1907, Bukittinggi, Minangkabau, Sumatra, Indonesia–d. 16 November 1987, Singapore), also affectionately known as Pak Zubir (pak means “father” in Malay) or Mr Mari Kita (the first two words of the Singapore national anthem), was the composer of the Singapore national anthem, Majulah Singapura.Upon his arrival in Singapore in 1928, Zubir joined a bangsawan (traditional Malay opera) troupe as a violinist, and was subsequently recruited by a recording company as a recording supervisor in 1936.He became a music composer for film production company Shaw Brothers in 1949, and worked with Cathay Keris thereafter for 14 years until his retirement in 1964.Despite his lack of formal music education, the prolific songwriter wrote at least 1,500 songs comprising film songs, popular songs and national songs.4 He was conferred a series of awards during his lifetime and posthumously, in recognition of his work as the composer of the national anthem, as well as his contributions to the music scene and Malay culture in Singapore.5

Early life
Born into a Minangkabau family, Zubir’s mother died when he was seven years old. His father worked as a train conductor with the railway company and was also a village chieftain.6 Zubir had three younger sisters and two younger brothers, as well as an elder brother who had died at a young age.7

Zubir had his primary education from 1914 to 1921, and then went on to middle school for the next four years. When he was in primary school, his love for music was already evident. His music teacher, who spotted his passion, took it upon herself to nurture his musical talent. She taught him the solmisasi system – a style of learning music by way of number notations – and helped him form a band with a few like-minded friends. A friend taught him how to make flutes, and his band made music with bamboo flutes that they crafted themselves.8 In addition, Zubir also learnt to play the guitar and drums when he was in middle school.

Career
Indonesia
After completing 11 years of basic education, his father’s lack of financial resources compelled Zubir to start working at the age of 18. With little education, however, his work opportunities were limited. His first job was in a factory as a brick maker, and through a friend, he subsequently found his second job as a copy typist.10

While working as a copy typist, Zubir had ample time to pursue his passion in music. He joined a keroncong (an Indonesian style of music) band in his village, and learnt to play the violin from a friend.11 One day, after helping to put out a fire, Zubir received a commendation from a Dutch district officer who urged him to follow his dreams and strive for his aspirations. The 19-year-old took the advice, resigned from the copy typist job and became the leader of a travelling keroncong band. Together with his band members, Zubir travelled from village to village in Sumatra, making a living by performing at weddings, fun fairs and other social functions.12

All this time, Zubir’s father, who regarded music as haram (against the Muslim religion), was strongly against Zubir’s musical aspirations.13 As Indonesia was a Dutch colony then, his father had wanted him to become an officer either in the Dutch army or Dutch administration, or take over as village chieftain and marry four wives.14 Zubir, however, was determined to pursue his interest in music.15 Tired of having to “do the right thing” and with a strong desire to escape from the social and cultural restraints of his birthplace, he ultimately decided to chart a new life for himself in a foreign land.16

Singapore
In 1928, 21-year-old Zubir left Indonesia for Singapore in a cargo boat, with neither his father’s permission nor blessing.17 He had heard of Singapore from a sailor friend, who described the island as a place of glittering lights, kopi susu (coffee with milk) and mentega (butter) – luxury items he had never had in Sumatra.18 

Shortly after arriving in Singapore, Zubir found a job as a violinist with City Opera, a large bangsawan troupe at the Happy Valley amusement park in Tanjong Pagar.19 He learnt to read and write music in staff notation and play the piano when he was with the opera troupe. He subsequently became the troupe’s leader, and gained the respect of the 14 musicians in the group through hard work and talent.20

Zubir stayed with City Opera until 1936 when he was recruited by His Master’s Voice (HMV), a British-owned recording company, as a recording supervisor.21 Besides producing records, his job also entailed scouting for singing talents, which required him to travel to different parts of Indonesia and Malaya.22 With his diligence, Zubir gradually became a well-known figure in the music industry. His employment with HMV, however, was terminated with the onset of World War II.23

In 1941, Zubir brought his two wives and three young daughters out of Singapore to escape from the Japanese invasion. He returned to his birthplace, Bukittinggi, which was later occupied by the Japanese as well. He then formed a performing group with several musicians and singers, and they were kept busy entertaining Japanese soldiers.24

Upon his return to Singapore in 1947, Zubir worked as a freelance photographer for two years.25 In 1949, he was introduced to the film industry, with a job to compose songs for Malay films produced by Shaw Brothers.26 Chinta, one of the films that carried his songs, was a box-office hit. Zubir’s time with Shaw Brothers, however, was a brief one, as he felt that the job was not challenging enough.27

A year later, Zubir was introduced by a friend to the manager of Cathay Keris, another film company in Singapore. Cathay Keris was starting to produce Malay films at the time, and was looking for someone who could compose music for its films.28 Besides writing songs for selected scenes, the composer also had to compose background music that would hold the entire film together.29 This was a new field of work that appealed to Zubir, who was delighted to accept the job offer, and thus began his 14-year career with Cathay Keris.30 In the course of his work, Zubir expanded his knowledge of European and Asian scores, mixing them with Malay melodies to come up with a wide range of music that captured the different moods and essence of a large repertoire of Malay films.31

Zubir retired from Cathay Keris in 1964, following which he spent his time teaching music to the young at his home in Joo Chiat  Place using the solmisasi system.32

Contributions
National anthem
In 1958, Zubir wrote the music and lyrics for Majulah Singapura as the official song of the City Council of Singapore, before he became a Singapore citizen in 1967.33 With a strong sense of patriotism towards Singapore, he refused to accept payment from the government for writing the song,34 stating that the honour was rewarding enough for him.35

Majulah Singapura was formally presented to the people of Singapore as the state national anthem on 3 December 1959, the day when Singapore’s first Malayan-born Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Malay for “Head of State”), Yusof bin Ishak, was inaugurated.36 It was a significant day for Zubir: Besides feeling the pride of being the anthem’s composer, he finally reconciled with his 101-year-old father who came from Indonesia to witness the occasion, after they were estranged for about 30 years.37

Music compositions
A prolific songwriter, Zubir composed at least 1,500 songs during his lifetime.38 Some of his compositions are untraced, as he did not keep a record of all his works.39

Zubir’s music can be divided into three categories: film songs, popular songs and national songs.40 Some of his best-known compositions include Sayang di Sayang, Cempaka Biru, Setangkai Kembang Melati, Ikan Tembakul and Saputangan.41

On 22 August 2007, Zubir’s family signed an agreement with record company Universal Music Publishing Group to manage 1,500 songs written by Zubir.42 Under the agreement, Zubir’s works can be recorded by contemporary artistes, used in commercials and made available as mobile downloads.43

Awards and tributes
Zubir was conferred a number of awards and accolades during his lifetime and posthumously, including:

1962: Certificate of Commendation and the Public Service Star for composing the Singapore national anthem.44
1962: Award for Best Folk Songs and Dances in the movie, Dang Anom, at the Ninth Asian Film Festival in Seoul.45
16 March 1963: Sijil Kemuliaan (Certificate of Honour) for composing the state anthem.46
17 July 1971: Jasawan Seni, an award conferred by eight Malay cultural organisations for Zubir’s contribution to the Malay culture in Singapore.47
30 March 1974: Sangeetha Kalabooshan Award from the Singapore Indian Film, Arts and Dramatic Society.48
20 December 1980: Sri Budiman Award by Malay cultural association Sriwana.49
24 August 1987: ASEAN Cultural and Communication Award for Zubir’s contribution to the performing arts.50
17 April 1995: Lifetime Achievement Award from the Composers and Authors Society of Singapore (posthumous award).51

In addition, as a tribute to the songwriter, the Zubir Said Music Scholarship – initially administered by the Singapore Cultural Foundation and subsequently by the National Arts Council – was launched in 1990. The address of the School of the Arts (No. 1, Zubir Said Drive) was named after him in 2009.52

Family
Zubir’s first wife was Jamaliah Isa, a Singaporean bangsawan artiste.53 Tarminah Kario Wikromo, his second wife, was a popular keroncong singer whom he had talent-spotted in Jakarta and groomed for recording when he was working for HMV.54

Zubir had four children. His two elder daughters, Zubaidah and Zuraidah, were born by his first wife. His second wife gave birth to his third daughter Rohana, as well as his youngest child and only son, Soeyono.55

On 16 November 1987, Zubir died in his sleep at 5.30 am in his home at Joo Chiat Place. He died of liver failure at the age of 80, and was buried at the Pusara Aman cemetery in Choa Chu Kang.56



Author
Cheryl Sim



References
1. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 21, 232. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Music scholarship fund set up. (1990, March 10). The Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Chia, H. (1987, November 17). Mr Marikita: Shy, humble and well-lovedThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Mardiana, Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Low, Z. B. (2012). Biography of Zubir Said. In Majulah!: The film music of Zubir Said (pp. 22–27). Singapore: National Museum of Singapore, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 MAJ)
3. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
4. Music scholarship fund set up. (1990, March 10). The Straits Times, p. 24; Universal Music to handle Zubir Said's songs. (2007, August 24). The Straits Times, p. 86. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
5. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 260, 265–266. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
6. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Rohana Zubir. Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
7. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
8. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 24, 26–27, 252. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
9. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
10. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 27. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
11. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 29, 31, 40. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
12. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 29–30. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
13. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 31. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
14. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 23, 32, 38. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
15. Haron A. Rahman & Nuryati Duriat. (1983, October 18). The quiet man who makes lasting musicThe Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
16. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 39. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
17. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 43. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
18. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 12. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
19. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Low, Z. B. (2012). Biography of Zubir Said. In Majulah!: The film music of Zubir Said (pp. 22–27). Singapore: National Museum of Singapore, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 MAJ)
20. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 44–45. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
21. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Low, Z. B. (2012). Biography of Zubir Said. In Majulah!: The film music of Zubir Said (pp. 22–27). Singapore: National Museum of Singapore, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 MAJ)
22. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 49. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
23. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 51, 53. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
24. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 53, 55–56. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
25. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 66, 78. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
26. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 78. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
27. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
28. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 79. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
29. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
30. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 79, 81. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
31. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 81. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
32. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Tan, S. L. (1980, August 9). The man and his anthemThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Lim, K. K. (1987, November 17). Composer of our national anthem diesThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Chew, D. (1990). The story of the national anthem. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 23–28). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 24. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Low, Z. B. (2012). Biography of Zubir Said. In Majulah!: The film music of Zubir Said (pp. 22–27). Singapore: National Museum of Singapore, p. 23. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 MAJ)
34. Lim, S. (1990, March 10). Audience turns misty-eyed at tribute to ZubirThe Straits Times, p. 24. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
35. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 16. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
36. Chew, D. (1990). The story of the national anthem. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 23–28). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, pp. 26–27. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Debates: Official report. (1959, November 11). State arms and flag and state national anthem (Vol. 11). Singapore: Legislative Assembly, col. 739. (Call no.: RCLOS 328.5957 SIN); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 9. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
37. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 9. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
38. Universal Music to handle Zubir Said's songs. (2007, August 24). The Straits Times, p. 86. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
39. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
40. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
41. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 86, 89. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Lim, K. K. (1987, November 17). Composer of our national anthem diesThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
42. Universal Music to handle Zubir Said's songs. (2007, August 24). The Straits Times, p. 86. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
43. Loh, N. (2007, October 7). Tuning in anew to Zubir SaidThe Straits Times, p. 51. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
44. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 265. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Singapore. Legislative Assembly. Debates: Official report. (1959, November 11). State arms and flag and state national anthem (Vol. 11). Singapore: Legislative Assembly, col. 739. (Call no.: RCLOS 328.5957 SIN)
45. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, pp. 14–15. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
46. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 265. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Men who served S’pore well get their awards. (1963, March 17). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
47. A silver tray gift for national anthem composer Zubir. (1971, July 19). The Straits Times, p. 8. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 265. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
48. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 266. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
49. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 266. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH); Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 16. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB)
50. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 266. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
51. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 266. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
52. Music scholarship fund set up. (1990, March 10). The Straits Times, p. 24; Zubir Said scholarship. (1990, March 10). The Business Times, p. 2; Koh, D. (1997, February 28). Making a career in the arts rewardingThe Straits Times, p. 2; SOTA tribute to Zubir Said. (2009, May 9). Today, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
53. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
54. Mardiana Abu Bakar. (1990). Zubir Said, the man. In Zubir Said: His songs (pp. 10–17). Singapore: Published for Singapore Cultural Foundation by Times Books International, p. 13. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ZUB); Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, pp. 50–51. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
55. Rohana Zubir. (2012). Zubir Said: The composer of Majulah Singapura. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, p. 51. (Call no.: RSING 780.92 ROH)
56. Lim, K. K. (1987, November 17). Composer of our national anthem diesThe Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.



Further resources
Phuah, M. (Producer), & Choy, R. (Director). (2001). The soul of the nation: The story of Majulah Singapura [Videorecording]. Singapore: Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts.
(Call no.: RSING 782.421599095957 SOU)

Sulaiman Jeem & Abdul Ghani Hamid. (1988). Mengenang Pak Zubir. Singapore: Pustaka Melayu Publisher.
(Call no.: Malay RSING 780.924 SUL)

Zubir Said. (1965). Membacha musik. Singapore: Zubir Said.
(Call no.: Malay RCLOS 780.7 ZUB)



The information in this article is valid as at
3 September 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Zubir Said, 1907-1987
National songs--Singapore
Personalities>>Biographies>>Artists
Arts
Arts>>Music>>Music composition
Artists
Composers--Singapore--Biography
Award winners--Singapore--Biography
Arts personalities
arts