Tan Hiok Nee (Tan Yeok Nee)


Tan Hiok Nee (b.1827- d.1902, Chaozhou, China) alias Tan Yeok Nee, was a powerful and influential Teochew businessman in 19th century Singapore and Johore.  His name in Chinese is Chen Yu Yi, although he was more popularly known as Chen Xu Nian.  Tan, who amassed great wealth through opium and spirit farming, played an important role in the development of the region, particularly Johore. 

Early life
Tan was born in Jin Sha village in Shang Pu (present day Caitang) of Chaozhou, China. He lost his father when he was young.  As a youth, Tan was such a compulsive gambler that he used the money he borrowed for his mother's funeral.  At the age of 17, Tan left his hometown to seek opportunities in Nanyang (Southeast Asia).  He reached Pahang and worked in the mines of Pahang to pay for his travel expenses. After paying off his debts, he shifted to Singapore and became a textile peddler. Tan operated daily at Telok Blangah area and was popular among the residents due to his honesty. Among his regular customers was Temenggong Ibrahim whose son, Abubakar, became his good friend.

Accomplishments
At that time, Johor was largely undeveloped and the Temenggong was eager to attract enterprising Chinese to develop the territory. The Temenggong started the kang-chu system. This meant that chosen Chinese were appointed as kang-chus (or port owners) and enjoyed jurisdiction and rights over certain rivers and their banks.  As a result, the kang-chus have access to large tracts of land, which they used for revenue farming. 

With the help of the Temenggong, Tan moved to Johor in 1853.  Tan, in partnership with Tan Ban Tye, obtained the kang-chu rights of Bukit Beranganon, a tributary of the Johore River. There, he began cultivation of pepper and gambier.  Tan also traded in other types of merchandise and started a market on an island, midpoint of Sungai Segget.  In 1862, Temenggong Ibrahim passed away and Abubakar succeeded his father as the Temenggong. From the middle of 1863, Temenggong Abubakar accelerated the pace of Johore's development. In September that year, Tan obtained four additional kang-chu rights within a one-week period. By then, he was the most prominent businessman in Johore with seven kang-chu rights. This meant controls over the entire left bank of the Johore River which spanned from the south of Kota Tinggi to Pulau Ubin.

On 11 September 1863, Tan was given the sole control of the revenue rights to the town of Iskandar Putri in Johor Bahru. Within the next two years, Tan was involved in the trading of pepper, gambier and opium.  Tan was also involved in the Singapore and Johor opium and spirit Farms, partnering with Tan Seng Poh and Cheang Hong Lim. Tan Seng Poh was a Teochew tycoon while Cheang was a Hokkien businessman whose family held the monopoly to the opium and spirit farms for some time. In 1866, he set up the Kwang Hong Company in Singapore and became an established trader at Boat Quay.  Tan Yeok Nee soon amassed a great fortune, which he prudently invested in the lucrative real estate.  In 1868, Abubakar gained the title of Maharaja and two years later, he appointed Tan as Major China of Johor, the highest-ranking Chinese official in his government. In 1874, Tan was appointed as one of the two Chinese members in the State Council.

In 1875, Tan fled from Johor to Singapore and gave up all his connections to Johor.  It was speculated that his political rivals had removed him during the Maharaja's absence due to their resentment of his prominence and power. After his flight, Tan's assets and kang-chu rights were repossessed by the Johore government. His family-home mansion at Tank Road, Singapore, which was built in 1885, was acquired for the purpose of the Singapore-Johore Railway. Subsequently, Tan returned to his hometown in China and passed away on 21 May 1902 at the age of 75. In 1912, his mansion became St Mary's Home and Schools for Eurasian Girls. Later in 1938, it was turned into the Salvation Army's headquarters. On 29 November 1974, the house was gazetted as a national monument.  It received a new lease of life as the Asian Campus of University of Chicago Graduate School of Business on September 2000. Jalan Tan Hock Nee, a street in Johore Bahru, was also named after him. 

Family
Tan had five sons.  His second son Chen Ding Xing was a government official in China's Jiang Xi province.  All his sons passed away before him. His eight grandsons including Tan Chin Boon, Tan Chin Teat and Tan Chin Yeow who were well-known to the Teochews, inherited his properties. 

 

Author
Joshua Chia Yeong Jia

 

References
National Heritage Board. (2002). Singapore's 100 historic places (p. 31). Singapore: Archipelago Press.
(Call no.: RSING 959.57 SIN)

Song, O. S. (1984). One hundred years history of the Chinese in Singapore (pp. 37, 168, 191, 335). Singapore: Oxford University Press.
(Call no.: RSING 959.57 SON)

Trocki, C. A. (1979). Prince of pirates: The Temenggongs and the development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885 (pp.107, 125-128). Singapore: Singapore University Press.
(Call no.: RSING  959.5142 TRO)

Trocki, C. A. (1990). Opium and empire: Chinese society in colonial Singapore, 1800-1910 (pp.118-119, 137-141, 152-153, 161, 163, 166, 169, 171, 174-176, 194). New York: Cornell University Press.
(Call no.: RSING  959.5703 TRO)

Trocki, C. A. (1993). The rise and fall of revenue farming: Business elites and the emergence of the modern state in Southeast Asia (pp. 166-181). New York: St. Martin's Press.
(Call no:  RSING 336.200959 RIS)

Chew, M. (2000, April 6). Learning in the lap of history. The Business Times, p. 1. Retrieved March 23, 2006, from Factiva database.

Johor's Major Cina. (2004, August 29). Sunday Mail. Retrieved March 23, 2006, from Factiva database.

Chang, G. (n.d.).  The pioneer of Johor Tan Yeok Nee. Persekutuan Tiong-Hua Johor Baru 75th anniversary issue.  Retrieved Mar 23, 2006, from
mumacheng.com/his_mag/his_mag012.htm

The People's Government of Chao-an. (n.d.). Cong Xi Gong Ci. Retrieved March 23, 2006, from
www.ct.chaoan.gov.cn/bxgwg/lyjd_2.asp

Wikipedia. (2006). House of Tan Yeok Nee. Retrieved April 13, 2006 from, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Tan_Yeok_Nee

 

The information in this article is valid as at 2006 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources.  It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

Subject
Personalities>>Biographies
Tan, Hiok Nee, 1827-1902
Businessmen--Singapore--Biography
Business, finance and industry>>Industry>>Agriculture, fishing and forestry

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