Johor Battery



Built in the late 1930s, the Johore Battery was the main artillery battery of the British coastal artillery defence network on the northeastern coast of Singapore. It was located on Cosford Road in Changi, off Upper Changi Road North.1

Background
After World War I, Britain concentrated on developing of its naval power as its defence strategy, especially when Japan was rapidly expanding its naval strength. With Japan’s military menace looming large by the 1930s, it became vital for the British to develop Singapore as a naval base. Work proceeded at full speed,2 and Changi was chosen as the site for the Royal Artillery’s batteries to protect the Sembawang Naval Base against attacks from the east.3 Altogether, there were six batteries protecting the naval base. The northeastern coastal batteries, together with other batteries in the southern and western coasts, made Singapore the most fortified British colony.4

The main battery in the northeastern coast was named Johore Battery in appreciation of the £500,000 contributed by Johor’s Sultan Ibrahim for the British war campaign and as a Silver Jubilee gift for King George V. Of this amount, £400,000 was used to install two of the three 15-inch guns at the Johore Battery.5 These guns were the largest installed outside of Britain during World War II, and were also known as “monster guns” for their sheer size.6 The other two 15-inch guns in Singapore were mounted at the Buona Vista Battery in the south.7

Description
The guns at the Johore Battery were called “15-inch guns” because of the shells they fired were 15 in (38 cm) in diameter. Each gun was positioned 500 m from each other in a row. They had a 16.5-metre-long barrel, and their 360-degree traverse enabled them to target both land and sea objects. Vertical shafts led to a labyrinth of tunnels three storeys underground, and the tunnels were connected to a bunker housing the ammunition. The shells came up on hydraulic lifts and were pushed into the breech by a ram. The ammunition was capable of piercing the armour of the most powerful ship 30 km away.8

Failure
Between 5 and 12 February 1942, when the Japanese invaded Singapore from the Malay Peninsula, two of the guns at the Johore Battery were turned around to fire towards land in the north and east, including enemy infantry positions in Johor. The two guns fired a total of 194 rounds.9 The coastal guns, however, had limited impact against enemy forces coming from land, as the armour-piercing ammunition designed for seaborne targets failed to explode when the shells landed on soft earth.10 The battery was also not stocked with high-explosive rounds suitable for destroying enemy infantry and artillery.11

On the night of 12 February 1942, the British destroyed the guns at the Johore Battery to prevent them from falling into enemy’s hands.12

Discovery
When the British forces left Singapore, the Johore Battery was forgotten until the Singapore Prisons Service discovered it during a routine cleaning at its Abington Centre in April 1991.13 The place was then spruced up with a replica of the 15-inch gun, as well as a replica of an ammunition shell weighing over 800 kg.14

The restored Johore Battery was officially launched on 15 February 2002 as part of the 60th-anniversary commemorative programme for the fall of Singapore. The location was also marked as a historic site. The event was witnessed by some 200 former prisoners-of-war, war veterans, as well as their family members and friends.15


Authors
Jenny Kiong & Chan Fook Weng



References
1. Hack, K., & Blackburn, K. (2004). Did Singapore have to fall?: Churchill and the impregnable fortress. London; New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 98, 209–210. (Call no.: RSING 940.5425 HAC-[WAR]); Foo-Tan, C. (2004, April). The Johore Battery. This Month in History, 8(4), [n.p.]. (Call no.: RSING 355.0095957 TMH); Stubbs, P. W. (2003). The Changi murals: The story of Stanley Warren’s war. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 14. (Call no.: RSING 940.547252092 STU-[WAR])
2. Yap, S. Y., et al. (2004). Fortress Singapore: The battlefield guide. Singapore: Times Editions, p. 102. (Call no.: RSING 959.5703 FOR-[HIS]); Hack, K., & Blackburn, K. (2004). Did Singapore have to fall?: Churchill and the impregnable fortress. London; New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 97–98. (Call no.: RSING 940.5425 HAC-[WAR])
3. Foo-Tan, C. (2004, April). The Johore Battery. This Month in History, 8(4), [n.p.]. (Call no.: RSING 355.0095957 TMH); Goh, C. L. (2002, February 16). ‘Monster’ guns at Johore BatteryThe Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
4. Hack, K., & Blackburn, K. (2004). Did Singapore have to fall?: Churchill and the impregnable fortress. London; New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 101–102. (Call no.: RSING 940.5425 HAC-[WAR])
5. Yap, S. Y., et al. (2004). Fortress Singapore: The battlefield guide. Singapore: Times Editions, p. 103. (Call no.: RSING 959.5703 FOR-[HIS])
6. Foo-Tan, C. (2004, April). The Johore Battery. This Month in History, 8(4), [n.p.]. (Call no.: RSING 355.0095957 TMH)
7. Hack, K., & Blackburn, K. (2004). Did Singapore have to fall?: Churchill and the impregnable fortress. London; New York, N.Y.: RoutledgeCurzon, p. 101. (Call no.: RSING 940.5425 HAC-[WAR])
8. Goh, C. L. (2002, February 16). ‘Monster’ guns at Johore Battery. The Straits Times, p. 5; Tunnel tour for public in six months. (2002, February 16). The Straits Times, p. 5; WWII bunker found in prison. (1992, February 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Hack, K., & Blackburn, K. (2004). Did Singapore have to fall?: Churchill and the impregnable fortress. London; New York, N.Y.: RoutledgeCurzon, p. 199. (Call no.: RSING 940.5425 HAC-[WAR])
10. Miller, D. (1992, February 12). Singapore’s ‘underground’. The Straits Times, p. 22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. WWII bunker found in prison. (1992, February 12). The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
12. Goh, C. L. (2002, February 16). ‘Monster’ guns at Johore Battery. The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Stubbs, P. W. (2003). The Changi murals: The story of Stanley Warren’s war. Singapore: Landmark Books, p. 22. (Call no.: RSING 940.547252092 STU-[WAR])
13. Foo-Tan, C. (2004, April). The Johore Battery. This Month in History, 8(4), [n.p.]. (Call no.: RSING 355.0095957 TMH)
14. Goh, C. L. (2002, February 16). ‘Monster’ guns at Johore Battery. The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore Tourism Board. (2006, February 15). Johore Battery at Changi, officially opens to mark the 60th anniversary of Singapore’s fall [Press release]. Retrieved 2017, September 1 from MINDEF website: https://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/press_room/official_releases/nr/2002/feb/15feb02_nr.html
15. Goh, C. L. (2002, February 16). ‘Monster’ guns at Johore Battery. The Straits Times, p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Singapore Tourism Board. (2006, February 15). Johore Battery at Changi, officially opens to mark the 60th anniversary of Singapore’s fall [Press release]. Retrieved 2017, September 1 from MINDEF website: https://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/press_room/official_releases/nr/2002/feb/15feb02_nr.html



The information in this article is valid as at 2007 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.

 

Subject
National defence
Events>>Historical Periods>>World War II and Japanese Occupation (1939 - 1945)
Batteries (Ordnance)--Singapore
Law and government>>Security>>Navy
Politics and Government>>National Security>>Defence
Singapore--History--20th century
History>>Asia>>Southeast Asia>>Singapore
Ordnance, Naval--Singapore
1942-1945 Japanese occupation