The Singapore-Johor-Riau (SIJORI) Growth Triangle was announced on 20 December 1989 by then First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong. It is a tripartite arrangement between Singapore, Johor (in Malaysia) and Riau (in Indonesia) that seeks to exploit the competitive strengths of the three areas, and make the sub-region more attractive to regional and international investors. The growth triangle links the logistics, transportation and financial facilities of Singapore with the natural and labour resources of Johor and Riau. The development of SIJORI is largely led by the private sector, with governments facilitating the flow of goods, services, investment and people.
The Singapore-Riau link has since emerged as the strongest leg of the growth triangle, with collaborative efforts leading to several new industrial parks, and resorts being established on the Indonesian islands of Batam, Bintan and Karimun. Both Bintan and Batam have become manufacturing bases for multi-national corporations from countries such as the US, the Netherlands, Taiwan, Japan, Panama, Australia and the Bahamas, as well as Singapore firms looking to reduce costs. While trade and industrial links between Singapore and Johor are also well established, the Johor-Riau link has not been as active owing to the lack of complementarity between the two regions.
This sub-regional grouping was renamed the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle (IMS-GT) and formalised with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between representatives of the three countries on 17 December 1994.
1. S'pore, Batam and Johor can form a ‘triangle of growth’. (1989, December 21). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Henson, B. (1990, May 24). Chok Tong gives Johor govt a concept paper. The Straits Times, p. 1; Kwang, M. (1990, June 5). Growth triangle not like EC, says BG Lee. The Straits Times, p. 2; Suhardiyoto. (1990, June 26). Batam and Johor's share in growth triangle. The Straits Times, p. 27; Lee. T. Y. (Ed.). (1991). Growth triangle: The Johor-Singapore-Riau experience (pp. 3–10). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Call no.: RSING English 337.59570595 GRO.
3. Sparking possibilities in growth triangle: Chok Tong. (1990, June 14). The Straits Times, p. 40. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Lee, 1991, pp. 3–10.
4. Growth triangle ‘to be private sector affair’. (1990, July 13). The Straits Times, p. 3. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
5. Lee, 1991, pp. 97–100; Jacob, P. (1993, December 1). S'pore links ‘help boost Indonesia’s economic growth’. The Straits Times, p. 1; Siow, D. (1990, June 24). Where a fun triangle is a hop away. The Straits Times, p. 22; Tay, C. K. (1990, July 29). Golf cashes in on growth triangle. The Straits Times, p. 28; Craze for golf sees a mushrooming of resort projects in growth triangle. (1991, April 20). The Straits Times, p. 36; Siow, D. (1990, December 22). S’pore firms rushing to enter leisure industry. The Straits Times, p. 47; Kwang, M. (1990, December 12). Plans underway for Bintan island to build industrial estate. The Straits Times, p. 40; Bintan Industrial Estate’s pioneer plant opens tomorrow. (1994, July 18). The Straits Times, p. 40; PM Goh, Suharto to open industrial park in Batam today. (1992, April 18). The Straits Times, p. 1; Chok Tong, Suharto to open Karimun complex. (1997, March 17). The Straits Times, p. 3; Karimun’s plus points. (1997, March 18). The Straits Times, p. 20. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Lee, 1991, pp. 10-14; Investors responding to Batam development plan. (1990, June 20). The Straits Times, p. 18; Kwang, M. (1990, May 1). MNCs help Batam-Johor-S’pore growth triangle to take shape. The Straits Times, p. 36. Retrieved NewspaperSG.
7. Lee, 1991, pp. 67–68. Singapore to help Johor develop high-tech park. (1990, September 17). The Straits Times, p. 16; Seow. S. (1990, October 17). Johor proposes to get S’pore's help in high-tech park hailed. The Straits Times, p. 3; Phua, K. K. (1992, August 11). Smaller S’pore firms now going across Causeway in ‘second wave’ relocation. The Straits Times, p. 39; Mary, K. (1991, February 13). Indonesian ministers visiting Johor will extend tour to Singapore and Batam. The Straits Times, p. 32; Imbalance in growth triangle. (1993, September 1). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Chan, S. M. (1994, December 18). BG Lee: Growth triangles will benefit Asean region. The Straits Times, p. 1. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
The information in this article is valid as at 2013 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.